Parenthood can be defined as the responsibilities of parents to guide, protect and provide for the basic needs of their children

(i) Protection and defense: It is the responsibility of a father to protect and defend his family members in times of troubles.
(ii) Assurance of peace: It is the primary duty of a father to ensure that unity, peace, love and harmony reign within his family
iii) Ensuring proper upbringing: It is the duty of a father to ensure the proper upbringing of his children.
(iv) Training of children: It is the priority of the mother to train the children on basic household chores and help the children to be responsible.
(v) Love and care: It is the duty of the mother to show love and care to the family
(vi) Support: The mother should be performing the role of a helper; she should support the husband in his role. E.g. giving financial support, helping to training the children, giving reasonable advice to the husband and children


Values can be defined as important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good or bad and desirable or undesirable.

(i) Positive values: positive values applies to things or qualities which are good, desirable or worthwhile. For example include truth telling, hard work, obedience etc.
(ii) Negative values: This is a bad value, unacceptable or worthless value that the society frown at. Examples includes late coming to school, truancy, lying, armed robbery, indecent dressing , fraudulent acts, etc.
(iii) Intrinsic values: Something has intrinsic value when it is good or desirable for its own sake and in itself. For example, good music, beautiful flowers, particular dress, type of handset, type of house and other value giving satisfaction to the beholder.
(iv) Instrumental values: This is value that persons attach to objects or things that can be used for achieving another thing. For example, a good knife, a good music, a good handset. Also, drugs can be an instrumental value because prescribed drug cures illness etc.
(v) Absolute values: These are values that are not conditioned or stick to time, place or circumstance. They are always positive, good and worthwhile. They are always refer to as eternal and universal values, they hold positive and good at all places, circumstances and at all times. Examples of such values are: trust, honesty, hard work, discipline, tolerance, obedience etc.
(vi) Relative values: These values depends on time, place or circumstance. This means that situation and current happening will determine the direction of the affairs. For example, killing is bad and it is an act that people frown at, but what of mercy killing or killing a person to save one’s life. It’s a case of another good example of relative value.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

(i) A citizen in a democracy should have the duty to vote. If it were up to me, voting would be a requirement. What is wonderful about a democracy is that we choose who will represent us. There is no point to a democracy in which we do not participate.

(ii) A citizen in a democracy should have an obligation to understand the powers and duties of the government, generally set forth in a constitution. If we do not know this, the government that does not act properly has no checks upon it and can avoid carrying out its duties.

(iii) A citizen in a democracy should have the responsibility of knowing his or her rights, which are also generally set forth in a constitution. If we do not know what our rights are, they are meaningless.

(iv) A citizen in a democracy should always know who his or her representatives are. If we do not know who is representing us, we do not know whether or not that person is representing us properly, to whom we should complain if that is the case, or to whom we should state our own opinions and preferences.


A road accident refers to any accident involving at least one road vehicle, occurring on a road open to public circulation, and in which at least one person is injured or killed.

(i) Distracted Driving
(ii) Over Speeding
(iii) Drunk Driving
(iv) Reckless Driving
(v) Bad Weather
(vi) Bad road

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