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i)concentrated in towns
ii)mainly import substituting;
iii)depend on imported machinery/technology;
i)Making relevant products: manufacturing industries in tropical Africa create an environment where the products created for it populace are made with a proper understanding of their needs.
ii)Job creation: With vast youth unemployment in the tropical Africa , manufacturing is one of the only sectors next to agriculture that can create a significant amount of jobs for the currently unemployed in these areas.
iii)Participation in the global economy:
Unlike other countries that have strong manufacturing
sectors, tropical Africa countries is limited in its participation in the global economy.
iii)shortage of raw materials;
(i) Site(physical location)
(ii) Situation(location in relation to other areas)
(v) Plan and layout(structure)
(i) Aging population
i) Depletion of Natural Resources: The Earth can only produce a limited amount of water and food, which is falling short of their current needs. Acts of violence and aggression have increased tremendously while competing for resources.
(ii) Degradation of Environment: With the overuse of coal, oil and natural gas, it has started producing some serious effects on their environment.
(iii) High Cost of Living: As difference between demand and supply continues to expand due to overpopulation in Japan, it raises the prices of various commodities including food, shelter and healthcare.
I)the north Atlantic route
ii)the Panama central route
iii)trans Pacific trade route
iv)the south Atlantic route
I)it help in the transportation of goods and materials at chesper and safer means
ii)national and international trade water transportation enhance trade between two or more countries and also between two regions
iii)it enhance access to national resources through transportation in different natural resources are discover of the nationa
iv)generationals of revenue water transportation generate revenue through obtaining license from the government of it nations
i)river should be dredged regular
ii)ship should be equipped with refrigerated holds
iii)water weeds should be put under permanent controls
iv)construction of canals to by pass water falls and cataract
(i) Land use: Traditional farms are very small usually only 1 to 3 hectares. The goods produced on these small farming units is used mainly for consumption of the family. The consumption survival considerations dominate the commercial ones.
(ii) Labour: Labour used per hectare tends to be high in traditional farming. Mostly the family labour works on the subsistence farms.
(iii) Productivity and efficiency: The subsistence farming or traditional farms are characterized by low of inputs which are mostly provided by the farmer himself . For example seeds, cow dung manure etc are not purchased by the farmers. Yields per hectare, production per person and overall productivity tend to be low.
(iv) Income and level of living: The income and level of living of the subsistence farmers is mostly below poverty line.
(i) Provision of basic needs of the family like food and clothing
(ii) It does not require too much plots of land to cultivate.
(iii) Low capital is required to carry out subsistence farming.
(iv) It does not require the hiring of labour.
(i) No surplus for sale to earn income. All produce are consumed by the family.
(ii) Family labour supply is unreliable because they are not paid for job done.
(iii) Fragmentation or small farmland is available because lands are owned communally and usually shared among family members regardless of whether they are interested in farming or not
DRAW THE GRAPH
Movement of goods and services
-Movement of people
-Development of tourism
-Opening up new lands and areas
-Generation of revenue
-It is very costly to build and maintain
-Railway transport is relatively slow in
some other areas
-Railway network is generally poor
6a) DRAW THE MAP
6b) Coal is mined by the adit method whereby tunnels are driven in to the hillsides to reach the coal layers which are called seams.
Coal deposits are also known to exist in the middle bely especially Benue State
6c)- Loss of farmland; Mining has led to the destruction of farmlands especially among the oil-producing communities of the Niger Delta.
-Depletion of reserves; Mineral is a kind of nonrenewable resources. Several of them are already being depleted after a long period of exploitation
– Over dependence; The country depends too much on minerals, especially oil. Other sectors are being neglected as a result. If anything bad happens to the oil,Nigeria will face a big problem
-Mining hazards; Mining has its own risks e.g drilling oil in the swampy mosquito infested delta region and right at sea in offshore locations
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