Gradient = vertical interval/horizontal equivalent
But VI = 1100-850
= 250
HE 12.5cm 50,000/100,000
Therefore Gradient
= 250/6.250
= 25/625
Therefore Gradient
= 1m 25

(i) It is the major drainage of the mapped area
(ii) it has a drills drainage pattern




(i) caves
(ii) sinkholes
(iii) skyline landscapes


(i) Limestone are all used to neutralise excess acidity of soil in agriculture

(ii) Limestone is used as a building
material .

(iii) It is used in industries to purify iron in blast furnaces.

(iv) It used in Glass making.


Number 5

Number 7



(i)Encroachment : More migration lead to less availability of land which lead to higher economic value of land. 

Pollution: Explosive increase in the urban population without corresponding expansion of civic facilities such as lack of adequate infrastructure for the disposal of waste results in waste clogging the natural channels and storm water drains.

Illegal mining activities: Illegal mining for building material such as sand and quartzite both on the catchment and on the bed of the lake have extremely damaging impact on the water body. 

Interference in drainage system:
Drainage congestion caused by badly planned construction of bridges , roads , railway tracts, hampers the flow of water and the result is flood.

– Flooding leads to loss of human life
– Flooding leads to damage to property
– It leads to destruction of crops


Improving Drainage
Improving water drainage helps control floods by facilitating easy flow of excess water, especially in urban areas during flash floods. 

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Building Dikes and Levees Dikes and levees are flood-control structures built to fight river flooding and water surges. 

Building Canals
Canals are artificial water channels that can be crucial to flood prevention. Canals facilitate control of water levels passing through, and form linear reservoirs and water locks. 

Harvesting Rain Water
Harvesting rainwater involves collecting and storing rainwater and can not only prevent floods, it can also curb urban water scarcity.



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