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Many of figures of speech are explored in the poem Binsey Poplars felled of which are:

(a) Alliteration – This is the repetition of the same consonant sound on the same line. The
following alliterates in the poem:
(i) ‘….leaves….leaping….’ /L/
(ii) ‘….fresh….following folded….’ /f/
(iii)’….swam… sank’ /s/
(iv) ‘….wind – wandering weed.. winding….’
(v) ‘….when we’ /w/
(vi) ‘….growing green’ /g/
(vii) ‘since …so’ /s/
(viii) ‘To touch …so slender’ /s/
(ix) ‘where we’ /w/
(x) ‘when we’ /w/
(xi) ‘…comers cannot ..beauty been’ /k/ and /b/
(xii) ‘….ten….twelve’ /t/
(xiii)’….sweet…scene’ /s/ lines 23 and 24.

(b) Assonance: This is the repetition of the same vowel sound in a line of a poem. The following Assonate:
(i) ‘Quelled …quenched’ /e/
(ii) ‘….dandled….sandlled’ /æ/
(iii) ‘….knew….do’ /u:/
(iv) ‘….we delve….’ /e/
(v) ‘Hack rack…. /æ/
(vi) ‘….sleek….seeing….’ /i:/
(vii) ‘….prick will….’ /i/
(viii) ‘….we….even….mean’ /i:/
(ix) ‘….mend….end’ /e/
(x) ‘when …delve’ /e/
(xi) ‘ten …twelve’ /e/
(xii) ‘…sweet …scene’ /i:/

(c) Repetition: This is the casual re-writing or calling of the same word word for emphasis. The following are repeated for emphasis –
(i) ‘quelled’ lines(1 and 2)
(ii) ‘felled’ line/3/
(iii) ‘not’ line/5/
(iv) ‘we’ line/9/
(v) ‘so’ lines/2/13
(vi) ‘where we(line 6)
(vii) ‘when we’ lines(10 and 18)
(viii) ‘Ten or twelve’ (line 20)


*(Number 1)*
-Another aversion-

Yoko is portrayed as a beautiful, ambitious, and courageous woman who joins an all-male secret society (the feared Poro society) and consequently loses her right to motherhood, though not to her sexuality. She knows not everyone is happy that she is the chief of Kpa-Mende, especially her brother Lamboi. Ruler of Mende Chiefdom who is described to have a brain made from music. She wants to inherit the chiefdom of Senehun after her husband and she played the politics of succession well.Because it is war time, her husband prefers Ndapi his chief warrior. She is greedy and insolent
In becoming a male-female, Yoko is much feared by her male contemporaries, envied by women in her constituency, and doubly pliable in the hands of the British rulers. The Governor describes her as a shining example not only of African feminine pulchritude but of one who blends grace, magnanimity, bravery, audacity, tranquillity, and majesty. She feels so disgraced by the Governor’s boundary demarcations to reduce her territorial control in spite of her years of loyalty to him.
In history, Yoko is seen by many of her subjects as a usurper and a friend of the colonial administration; she remained controversial throughout her reign until her death in 1906. In the play, this controversy is packaged as a defiance of the cultural norm that women should not dare rule during war times.Because of her loyalty to her husband and her desire to lead, being somebody else’s wife after her husband does not appeal to her. Her insistence at having control of her space and fighting a culture set-up that has no consideration for women as rulers, she has to be tough and insolent to push her agenda through.
Being a visionary who willingly gives up the privilege of childbearing for the leading chieftaincy title in all of Kpa-Mende, she is willing to disprove the myth of female inferiority. Kargbo has done a tremendous job of portraying Yoko as an impressive ruler of heroic proportions. Indeed, the historic Yoko was nothing short of the heroic present Yoko as a complex figure whose feminine comportment, sensuality, and beauty promoted her among women, but whose fearless soul and unrestrained ambition made her to competent and visionary leader among her males counters. It is a painful realization for Yoko that all this while she was being used and now she is being humiliated.



Yoko: She was a leader of the Mende people in Sierra Leone. Combining advantageous lineage, shrewd marriage choices and the power afforded her from the secret Sande Society, Yoko became a leader of considerable influence. She expanded the Mende. Kingdom and at the time of her death, she was the ruler of the vast Kpa Mende Confederacy. She changed her name to Yoko at her Sande initiation ceremony, during which time she became known for her graceful dancing. Yoko’s first marriage, which was unsuccessful, was to a man named gongioma leaving Gongoima, Yoko’s second husband was Gbenjei, Chief ofT mama Yoko reinajned childless, Gbenjei made her his great wife with prominent attention, giving her power within her household. Following Gbenjei’s death, Yoko married Gbanya Lango. In 1875, Gbanya was detained by Colonial Officials in Taiamawaro. Yoko went directly to Governor Roweto appeal for her husband’s release. Rowe was impressed with Yoko’s appeal and Gbanya was flogged, and then released. following this incident, Gbanya made Yoko his great wife and began sending her on diplomatic missions, With the Sande, Yoko was able to wield significant power not only amongst women but also over Mende society as a whole. As a leader in this women’s secret society, she made political alliances and took younger initiates as “wards” later marrying them into other aristocratic lineages in an imitation of the trajectory of her own rise to power, In1878, following her third husband’s death, Yoko became the chief of Senehun. By 1884, she was officially recogniscd as “Queen of Senehun”. This recognition came not only from her own people, but also from the British. She died in 1906, rumoured to have committed suicide. Lamboi her brother succeeded her because she had no descendants of her own.


Jimmy Porter feels the sense of alienated from the Establishment, the upper-crust of British society, which has shut him out of the most lucrative jobs because of his class. He graduated from a “white-tile” university, one of the newer and least prestigious universities in Great Britain, so his education, as good as it ended up being, doesn’t mean much to the British Establishment. He also feels alienated from his wife, Alison, whose father is a colonel and whose brother is now a member of Parliament. He regularly berates Alison, characterizing himself as the only thinking person in the household. He has even given her a nickname: Lady Pusillanimous. This nickname emphasizes both Jimmy’s intelligence (via his vocabulary) and Alison’s timid nature. It also suggests that at least part of Jimmy’s alienation stems from his behavior, not his socioeconomic status, and that he might have an easier time connecting with people if he treated them with respect. In other words Jimmy Porter spoke for a large segment of the British population in 1956 when he ranted about his alienation from a society in which he was denied any meaningful role. He wants to force her to feel and to have vital life. He calls her “Lady Pusillanimous” because he sees her as too cowardly to commit to anything Jimmy is anxious to give a great deal and is deeply angry because no one seems interested enough to take from him, including his wife. He says, “My heart is so full, I feel ill and she wants peace!”




The poem, Binsey Poplar centres around human relationship with the natural world & the poet uses different poetic devices to convey his literary taxonomy. The use of alliteration, assonance & repetion will be outlined in the subsequent paragraphs –
(a) Alliteration:
Alliteration is one of the poetic devices used by Hopkins and the device can be defined as the repetitive use of the same consonant sounds at the beginning of two or more words in close relationship to each other or one another.
Hopkins here uses this excerpt thru his mellifluous language to give the vividness of his aesthetic literary taxonomy & he has succeeded not just bringing out the mental image of the poplars but also bring out the meaning thru his rhymes
The alliterative salient examples are as follow;
(i) Quelled or Quenched in leaves leaping sun ( Q Alliterates)
(ii) of a fresh and following folded rank (F Alliterates)
(iii) shadow that swam or sank (S Allitterate)
(iv) wind wandering wind winding bank ( W Alliterates)

Another poetic device exemplified in the poem ” Binsey Poplar” is assonance which is the repetitive use of the same vowel sounds at the beginning of two or more words in close relationship to each other or one another. Examples of assonance used in the poem are as follow;
Dear, airy, leaves & leaping ( E Assonance)
Assonance is quite similar to consonance & the poet, Hopkins uses this device to draw readers to the poet’s rhythmical pattern.

(c) Repetition:
Repetition is another dominant poetic device used in the poem. Hopkins uses repetition.
The following are repeated for emphasis –
(i) ‘quelled’ lines(1 and 2)
(ii) ‘felled’ line/3/
(iii) ‘not’ line/5/
(iv) ‘we’ line/9/
(v) ‘so’ lines/2/13
(vi) ‘where we(line 6)
(vii) ‘when we’ lines(10 and 18)
(viii) ‘Ten or twelve’ (line 20)
(ix) ‘sweet’ lines (22-24)
(x)….’rural scene’ line/23/



“Rage” is personified throughout the poem. It is possible that the poet does this deliberately to underline this fact:

Rage is the “chief” architect of man’s troubles on this earth. And, by extension, negative emotions constitute a powerful force in our lives.

This is why they must be avoided at all cost before they destroy us.

Rage, anger or hatred only serve to deprive the individual of the things he most desires. Rage is like a raider. It will steal the laughter, the, peace and calmness, sweetness and, indeed, all light from you if you allow it a place in your heart and mind

In other words, rage is the thief or “raider” always lurking around the corner to rob us of our dreams for a life of contentment.

Like corrosive acid, rage is toxic. It eats away the treasures of happiness that all humans work so hard to achieve.

In effect, all human suffering can be attributed to man’s inability to rid himself of dark emotions like anger, jealousy and hatred and to replace them with love.

Rage brings nothing other than trouble.

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