(i) Texture: The texture of a rock is the size, shape and arrangement of the grains(for sedimentary rocks) or crystals(for igneous and metamorphic rocks). They could be coarse grained in texture eg granite. They could be fine grained in texture eg Basalt. We also have porphyritic texture – mixed fine and coarse grained texture. Eg: volcanic rock. Sedimentary rocks examples are shale, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate.
(ii) Structure: Rocks are composed of grains of minerals which are crystalline solids. Some are non-crystalline eh volcanic glass
(iii) Colour: Rocks have different colors because of different mineral compositions. Light, white or yellow rocks can be composed of quartz or calcite. Dark colored, composed of chromite and red colour by iron oxides.
(i) Plutonic rocks are formed beneath or within the earth’s crust while volcanic rocks are formed on the surface of the earth.
(ii) Plutonic rocks are coarse grained while volcanic rocks are fine grained.
Environmental resources refer to any useful item in the environment, or materials and substances that are useful to man. In other words, environmental resources are useful things (both living and non-living) occurring naturally within a particular geographical location which are of benefit to man, animals and plants.
(Pick Any Four)
(i) Atmospheric resources
(iii) Vegetation Resources
(Pick Any Two)
(i) Industrial development and source of ornaments:Diamond,iron ,copper,silver and graphite are useful for industrial development e.g diamond, the hardest know metal is used in cutting other metals and graphite is used in making pencil. Some mineral like gold, silver,bronze are used as ornamental ware or jewellery. Gold is the most valuable metal used in making wrist watches,chains etc
(ii)Source of foreign exchange and provision of employment: Most mineral sold to other countries provide foreign exchange for development eg petroleum in Nigeria. People engaged in the morning of these minerals get jobs as miners, drillers , engineering.. It contribute to economic development of a nation
(iii)source of timber and firewood: Timber like Iroko ,obeche ,Mahogany etc are sources of planks and plywood used for building and furniture. Timber also provides foreign exchange for nation. Firewood is used to provide fuel for cooking food, warning the body during cold weather ,for drying fish etc. They are contribute in economic development of a nation
(iv) Development of game resource and Tourism: Forest and savanna are the home of wildlife which can serve as game reserve eg Yankari Games Reserve. Forest and Savanna are also centres of tourism which can also generate foreign exchange to nations.An increase in tourism flow can bring positive economic outcomes to the nations
(i) It is cost effective and requires less manpower as it is tool-based.
(ii) It requires field study to interpret data into useful information
(i) It is a costly affair as the data is incurred from space and through sensors and satellites.
(ii) It reduces manual work and ground field study.
(i) In Telecommunication: Satellite remote sensing have been found to be more useful and relevant in telecommunication. The satellite remote sensing has made it possible for regional, national and international communication without being in direct contact with human beings.
(ii) In Transportation: The availability of high resolution commercial remote sensing has contributed to a revolution to the transport network. The satellite remote sensing is useful to transportation, it helps to improve the trafficability of the roads and also contributed greatly in the movement of aero planes, jets and even seen beyond the bonds of human eye sight.
(Pick Any FOUR)
(i) Inadequate Power
(ii) Inadequate Personnel
(iii) Inadequate capital
(iv) Poor communication
(v) Lack of GIS institution
(vi) Low technology transfer