Neco 2023 Agricultural Science Obj & Essay Question And Answer Now Available







(i) To control land use and prevent land degradation
(ii) To promote sustainable land use practices
(iii) To ensure equitable distribution of land resources
(iv) To protect the environment and biodiversity

(i) Providing training and education on beekeeping practices
(ii) Promoting the use of modern beekeeping technologies
(iii) Advocating for policies that support beekeeping
(iv) Providing financial support to beekeepers

(i) Reduced soil erosion and compaction
(ii) Preservation of topsoil and soil structure
(iii) Reduced environmental impact
(iv) Preservation of beneficial microorganisms in the soil

(i) Accessibility to the farm fields
(ii) Availability of water and electricity
(iii) Proximity to the market and transportation routes
(iv) The natural features of the land such as slope, soil type, and drainage


(i) Crop rotation involves the regular alternation of different crops on a piece of land to improve soil fertility and crop yields.
(ii) It involves the rotation of leguminous crops with non-leguminous crops to fix nitrogen in the soil.
(iii) It involves the rotation of crops with different rooting depths to improve soil structure and moisture retention.
(iv) It involves the rotation of crops with different nutrient requirements to avoid nutrient depletion in the soil.

(i) Commensalism is a type of ecological association where one organism benefits while the other is neither harmed nor benefited. Symbiosis, on the other hand, is a type of ecological association where two organisms live together in a close relationship.
(ii) Predation is a type of ecological association where one organism (predator) kills and eats another (prey) for food While Parasitism is a type of ecological association where one organism (parasite) benefits at the expense of the other (host).

(i) Rocks provide a natural source of minerals and nutrients to the soil.
(ii) They help to improve soil drainage and aeration.
(iii) Rocks can help to reduce soil erosion and water runoff.
(iv) They can also help to regulate soil temperature and moisture content.

(i) Irrigation helps to provide water to crops during periods of drought or low rainfall.
(ii) It helps to increase crop yields and improve crop quality.
(iii) Irrigation can help to reduce soil salinity and improve soil fertility.
(iv) It can also help to extend the growing season and increase the variety of crops that can be grown.


=>The area of the farmland is A = πr²/4 = π(1960cm/2)²/4 = 3,018,306.92 cm²
(5aii) The number of mounds on the farmland is N = A/2m² = 1,509,153.46 mounds
(5aiii) The total number of setts needed is S = N * 5000 sett/ha = (N * 5000 sett/ha) * (10,000 m²/ha) = 75,457,673,000 setts
(I) intercropping with legumes or vegetables to improve soil fertility and reduce weed growth
(II)crop rotation with other crops like maize or cassava to reduce pest and disease pressure
(III)mulching to conserve soil moisture and suppress weed growth.

(i)Selecting appropriate tree species that are compatible with other crops in the system and can provide multiple benefits such as shade, soil improvement, and biodiversity conservation.
(ii) Planting trees at the appropriate density and spacing to avoid competition with other crops for resources such as water and nutrients.
(iii). Pruning and managing trees regularly to maintain a balance between their growth and the needs of other crops in the system.

(i) Impatiens spp. (touch-me-nots)
(ii) Cardamine hirsuta (hairy bittercress)
(iii) Oxalis spp. (wood sorrels)


(i) Mulching helps to conserve soil moisture, suppress weed growth, and improve soil fertility.
(ii) Staking helps to support the yam vines and prevent them from falling over, which can improve yields and prevent damage to the yam tubers.
(iii) Training of vine helps to direct the growth of the yam vines and prevent them from becoming tangled, which can improve yields and make harvesting easier.

(i) Elephant grass – Pennisetum purpureum
(ii) Carpet grass – Axonopus compressus
(iii) Stylo – Stylosanthes guianensis
(iv) Puero – Pueraria phaseoloides

(i) Weeds can help to improve soil fertility by adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil.
(ii) Weeds can provide habitat and food for beneficial insects and wildlife.
(iii) Weeds can help to prevent soil erosion by protecting the soil surface from wind and water.
(iv) Some weeds have medicinal properties and can be used for traditional medicine.

(6d) Farmland calculations:

(i) Area of the farmland:
Length = 60m
Width = 30m

Area = Length × Width
Area = 60m × 30m
Area = 1800m²

(ii) Plant population in the farmland:
Spacing = 30cm by 30cm

To calculate the number of plants, we need to convert the spacing to meters:
30cm = 30/100 = 0.3m

Plant population = (Length in meters / Spacing in meters) × (Width in meters / Spacing in meters)
Plant population = (60m / 0.3m) × (30m / 0.3m)
Plant population = 200 × 100
Plant population = 20,000 plants
Therefore, the plant population in the farmland is 20,000.



(i) Genetic qualities: Look for rabbits with good genetic traits such as high fertility high growth rates and disease resistance. Breeding animals with desirable traits will help improve the overall quality of the offspring.
(ii) Health and fitness: Select rabbits that are healthy free from any genetic disorders and have good overall physical condition. This ensures that the offspring will have a better chance of being healthy and thriving.
(iii) Temperament: Choose rabbits with a calm and friendly temperament. This will make handling and management easier as well as contribute to better overall welfare.
(iv) Productivity: Consider the productivity of the rabbits such as their ability to reproduce and raise litters successfully. Look for rabbits with a history of good mothering skills and high milk production.
(v) Conformation: Evaluate rabbits for proper conformation including body shape posture and proportions. Rabbits with good conformation are more likely to have better reproductive success and overall health.
(vi) Diversity: Avoid inbreeding by selecting breeding rabbits from different bloodlines. This helps maintain genetic diversity which can contribute to stronger and healthier offspring.

(i) Temperature control
(ii) Humidity control
(iii) Egg turning
(iv) Ventilation
(v) Egg monitoring
(vi) Egg handling

(i) Temperature
(ii) Diet
(iii) Physiological state
(iv) Activity level

(i) Amylase
(ii) Proteases
(iii) Lipase
(iv) Nucleases


(i) Blood carries nutrients and oxygen from the digestive system and lungs to various tissues and organs of the body ensuring proper nutrition and oxygenation.
(ii) Blood carries metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide and urea to organs like the lungs and kidneys for elimination from the body.
(iii) Blood contains white blood cells that help in fighting against diseases and infections by identifying and destroying pathogens.
(iv) Blood plays a role in maintaining the body’s temperature through heat distribution throughout the body and heat exchange with the environment.

(i) Hides are used to produce high-quality leather which is used in the manufacturing of shoes belts bags and various other leather products.
(ii) Hides can be used in meat processing such as in the production of gelatin and edible collagen.
(iii) Hides of certain animals like fur-bearing animals are used in the production of fur garments and accessories.
(iv) Hides can be exported and traded internationally contributing to the economy.

(i) Eggs are a significant source of protein and other essential nutrients making them a valuable part of human diet.
(ii) Eggs are used in various food products such as baking confectionery and pasta production.
(iii) Eggs can be exported and traded locally and internationally providing opportunities for economic growth.
(vi) Eggshells can be used in various applications such as for calcium supplements fertilizer production and even in waste treatment processes.

(i) Tails of certain animals like cows and pigs are used in recipes to add flavor and richness to dishes such as in soups and stews.
(ii) Animal tails can be used in the production of pet food or treats providing a source of nutrition for animals.
(iii) Traditional Medicine: Tails of certain animals have been used in traditional medicine for their perceived health benefits.
(iv) Tails can be used in the manufacturing of products like brushes ornaments and even fashion accessories.

-One function-
(i) Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which are responsible for regulating the body’s metabolism and growth.

-One deficiency symptom-
(i) Iodine deficiency can lead to the development of a condition called goiter where the thyroid gland becomes enlarged. Other symptoms may include hypothyroidism impaired mental development and decreased fertility.

-One function-
(i) Magnesium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes such as muscle and nerve function DNA synthesis energy production and maintaining normal heart rhythm.

-One deficiency symptom-
(i) Magnesium deficiency can lead to symptoms such as muscle cramps tremors weakness fatigue abnormal heart rhythms and calcium and potassium imbalances.

-One function-
(i) Calcium is vital for the development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth. It also plays a role in muscle function nerve transmission and enzymatic reactions within the body.

-One deficiency symptom-
(i) Calcium deficiency can result in weakened bones and teeth leading to conditions like osteoporosis and dental problems.



To calculate the number of days it took for the work to be done in 2017:
In 2015, six labourers completed the work in ten days. Let’s assume that the total work required to prepare the farmland is “W” units.
Work done in 2015 = W units
Number of labourers in 2015 = 6
Number of days in 2015 = 10
In 2017, only four labourers were available. Let’s assume the number of days it took to complete the work in 2017 is “d” days.
Work done in 2017 = W units
Number of labourers in 2017 = 4
Number of days in 2017 = t (to be determined)

Now, we know that the amount of work done in both years is the same (W units). Therefore, we can set up the following equation based on the work equation:
Work done in 2015 = Work done in 2017
6 labourers x 10 days = 4 labourers x d days
Now, solve for “d”:
6 x 10 = 4 x d
60 = 4d
d = 60 / 4
d = 15
Therefore, it took 15 days for the work to be done in 2017.
If 4 people worked together for 15 days, we can calculate the total work done in terms of man-days as:
Total work done = Number of people x Number of days
Total work done = 4 people x 15 days
Total work done = 60 man-days

*So, if 4 people worked together for 15 days, the total work completed would be 60 man-days.*

(i) Family Labor
(ii) Hired or paid labour

(i) Labour Attendance Record
(ii) Labour Wage and Payment Record
(iii) Work Done Record
(iv) Safety and Health Record

(i) Wholesalers
(ii) Retailers
(iii) producers
(iv) cooperative societies

(i) Limited access to modern equipment and resources in rural areas hinder exytension workers in promoting new agricultural technologies or practices
(ii) High level of illiteracy among farmers may slow down the rate of adoption of new innovations
(iii) Poor infrastructure, such as bad roads and limited transportation, can hinder extension workers’ mobility and accessibility to remote rural communities.
(iv) Unfavourable attitude of rural farmers toward government programmes, makes adoption of new innovations difficult.
(v) Language barrier leads to improper dissemination of new innovations
(vi) Inadequate resources such as finance and materials tend to hinder his performance.


Scale of preference refers to a ranking or order of individuals’ preferences for different goods and services. It represents the way people make choices based on their desires and needs, given their limited resources or income. In essence, individuals assign relative importance to various options and make decisions to maximize their utility or satisfaction.

To calculate the elasticity of demand, we use the formula:
Elasticity of demand = Percentage change in quantity demanded / Percentage change in price

Given data:
Quantity demanded in 2012 (Q1) = 59,800 grape fruits
Price in 2012 (P1) = N450 per basket
Quantity demanded in 2018 (Q2) = 28,500 grape fruits
Price in 2018 (P2) = N750 per basket
Now, calculate the percentage change in quantity demanded:
Percentage change in quantity demanded = (Q2 – Q1) / Q1) x 100
Percentage change in quantity demanded = (28,500 – 59,800) / 59,800) x 100
= -31,300/59,800 x 100
= -0.52 x 100
= -52
Percentage change in quantity demanded ≈ -52%
Next, calculate the percentage change in price:
Percentage change in price = ((P2 – P1) / P1) x 100
Percentage change in price = ((750 – 450) / 450) x 100
= 300/450 x 100
= 0.67 x 100
= 67
Percentage change in price = 67%

Now, calculate the elasticity of demand:
Elasticity of demand ≈ (-52% / 67%) = -0.76

The demand for grape fruits is inelastic. This is because the calculated elasticity of demand (-0.76) is less than 1.

(i) Price of Substitutes
(ii) Consumer Income
(iii) Consumer Preferences and Tastes

(i) Sales Record
(ii) Inventory Record

(i) Visual Learning: Demonstrations offer a visual learning experience, making it easier for the audience to understand complex concepts and techniques through practical examples.

(ii) Active Participation: Demonstrations encourage active participation, allowing the audience to engage directly in the learning process by observing and performing tasks.
(iii) Practical Skills Development: Participants can learn and practice specific skills in real-time, enhancing their competency and confidence in applying the knowledge in their own settings.
(iv) Better Retention: Visual and hands-on learning experiences are known to improve information retention, as participants can see and experience the subject matter firsthand.
(v) Problem-Solving Opportunities: Demonstrations provide opportunities for participants to observe problem-solving techniques and responses to challenges, which they can apply in similar situations.
(vi) Addressing Language Barriers: Demonstrations can transcend language barriers, as they rely more on visual cues and actions rather than verbal communication, making them suitable for diverse audiences.

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