Neco 2024 Agricultural Science Obj & Essay Question And Answer Now Available








(i) Employment generation
(ii) Contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
(iii) Provision of raw materials for agro-industries
(iv) Export earnings for foreign exchange
(v) Income generation for rural communities
(vi) Enhancement of food security and nutrition
(vii) Conservation of natural resources

-Inconsistent Government Policies-
(i) Develop consistent long-term policies that encourage investment and innovation in agriculture.
(ii) Foster stakeholder involvement in policy-making to ensure policies align with needs and realities.
(iii) Provide incentives for agricultural producers and businesses to attract and retain investment.
(iv) Enhance regulatory frameworks to prevent policy reversals and promote stability.
(v) Engage with international organizations and development partners to harmonize policies.

-Unpredictable Climate-
(i) Invest in research and development of drought-tolerant and disease-resistant crop varieties.
(ii) Implement irrigation systems to manage water scarcity and mitigate drought impacts.
(iii) Promote conservation farming practices, such as mulching and crop rotation, to enhance soil moisture retention.
(iv) Develop early warning systems to forecast weather conditions and prepare farmers for extreme events.
(v) Provide crop insurance and disaster relief programs to mitigate the economic effects of climate-related disasters.

(i) Precision: Tree puller removes trees selectively, preserving valuable soil and preventing erosion.
(ii) Minimal soil disturbance: Unlike bulldozers, tree pullers do not compact soil or damage root systems of neighboring plants.
(iii) Environmentally friendly: Tree pullers avoid the release of harmful emissions associated with bulldozers.
(iv) Energy efficiency: Tree pullers are more fuel-efficient than bulldozers, reducing operating costs.
(v) Cost-effectiveness: Tree pullers may be more economical for small-scale land clearing operations.
(vi) Habitat preservation: Tree pullers can be used to remove specific trees without disturbing the surrounding ecosystem.
(vii) Selective harvesting: This allows farmers to retain desirable trees, such as fruit-bearing or shade trees, while removing undesirable ones.



Farm planning is the systematic process of organizing and managing the resources of a farm to achieve specific goals and objectives. It involves developing a comprehensive plan that outlines the farm’s objectives, strategies, and actions required to reach those objectives.

[In a Tabular form]

-Gunter’s Chain-
(i) Measuring distances during land surveying
(ii) Establishing baselines for triangulation
(iii) Laying out plots and fields
(iv) Determining the area of land

(i) Measuring horizontal and vertical angles
(ii) Establishing reference points for surveying
(iii) Leveling and aligning structures
(iv) Surveying buildings and other structures

(i) Marking reference points for surveying
(ii) Establishing temporary benchmarks
(iii) Identifying property boundaries
(iv) Providing visual landmarks for navigation

-Prismatic Compass-
(i) Determining the magnetic north direction
(ii) Measuring bearings and angles
(iii) Orienting maps and plans
(iv) Surveying land boundaries

(i) Improved crop yields through genetic engineering and biotechnology
(ii)!Precision farming techniques for efficient resource use
(iii) Disease and pest control through advanced diagnostics and treatments
(iv) Mechanization to increase labor productivity and reduce costs
(v) Development of sustainable farming practices to protect the environment
(vi) Data analytics for informed decision-making and risk management
(vii) Access to real-time information and market data through mobile technologies

(i) Provision of raw materials: Agriculture provides raw materials, such as crops, livestock, and fiber, for agro-allied industries.
(ii) Value addition: Agro-allied industries process agricultural products into value-added products, such as food, beverages, and textiles.
(iii) Employment creation: Both agriculture and agro-allied industries generate employment opportunities in rural and urban areas.
(iv) Economic growth: The growth of agro-allied industries contributes to overall economic growth and development.
(v) Technology transfer: Agro-allied industries often introduce new technologies and practices into the agricultural sector.
(vi) Market linkages: Agro-allied industries provide markets for agricultural products, ensuring stable incomes for farmers.
(vii) Diversification: The development of agro-allied industries diversifies the rural economy, reducing dependence on primary agricultural production.



Soil pH: Soil pH affects agricultural production by influencing nutrient availability, soil microbial activity, and the solubility of toxic elements. Different crops have different pH requirements, and soil pH can impact plant growth and overall yield.

Soil structure: Soil structure refers to the arrangementproducts
particles and affects factors such as water infiltration, root penetration, and oxygen availability. Good soil structure promotes healthy root growth and improves water retention, leading to better agricultural production.

Topography: Topography influences agricultural production by affecting factors like water drainage, erosion, and sunlight exposure. Sloped terrains can lead to soil erosion and water runoff, while products rains may experience waterlogging. Proper management of topography can optimize agricultural productivity.

(i) Rocks provide essential minerals and nutrients to the soil, supporting plant growth.
(ii) Rocks serve as a source of building materials for infrastructure in agriculture, such as stone walls or pathways.
(iii) Rocks help in soil stabilization and erosion control in agricultural products
(iv) Certain rocks, like limestone, can be used to adjust soil pH and improve soil fertility.
(v) Rocks are used in the construction of irrigation structures and water containment systems.
(vi) Rocks are valuable for landscaping and beautification of agricultural areas.

(i) Leaching: Nitrogen can be washed out of the soil by excess water, leading to nutrient runoff.
(ii) Denitrification: Microbial processes can convert soil nitrogen into gaseous forms, such as nitrous oxide, which is lost to the atmosphere.
(iii) Volatilization: Ammonium nitrogen can be converted into ammonia gas and lost to the air.
(iv) Erosion: Soil erosion can result in the loss of nitrogen-rich topsoil.
(v) Plant uptake: Nitrogen can be taken up by plants and harvested, removing it from the soil system.
(vi) Fixation: Certain soil minerals can bind nitrogen, making it less available to plants.

(i) Pesticides and herbicides
(ii) Heavy metals
(iii) Industrial products and wastes
(iv) Fertilizers
(v) Plastic debris
(vi) Oil and petroleum products



Irrigation is the artificial application of water to soil or land to assist in the growth of crops and plants when natural rainfall is insufficient or irregular.

(i) Water wastage: Inefficient irrigation methods can lead to water wastage and excessive water use.
(ii) Soil salinization: Over-irrigation can cause salts to accumulate in the soil, leading to reduced crop yields.
(iii) Waterlogging: Poor drainage in irrigated areas can result in waterlogging, suffocating plant roots and reducing crop productivity.
(iv) Aquifer depletion: Excessive irrigation can deplete underground water sources, leading to long-term water scarcity and environmental degradation.

Draw the diagram below

(i) Formed from pre-existing rocks that are subjected to high temperature and pressure.
(ii) Displays foliation or banding due to the alignment of mineral crystals.
(iii) Often contains minerals such as mica, quartz, and feldspar.
(iv) Hard and durable due to the intense heat and pressure during formation.
(v) Can exhibit a wide range of colors and textures, depending on the parent rock and metamorphic conditions.
(vi) Commonly found in mountain ranges and areas of convergent tectonic activity.

(i) Limestone
(ii) Rock salt
(iii) Gypsum
(iv) Chert
(v) Dolomite
(vi) Evaporites



Soil requirement: Rubber trees require well-drained, deep soils with a pH between 4.5 and 7.0. They thrive in sandy loam or clay loam soils that are rich in organic matter.

Climatic requirement: Rubber trees require a warm and humid climate with temperatures ranging between 20Β°C to 34Β°C. They need evenly distributed rainfall of around 1800-3000mm annually.

Planting date in nursery: Rubber tree seeds are usually planted in nurseries during the rainy season to ensure good moisture levels for germination and initial growth.

One fungal disease: Leaf spot disease, caused by the fungus Cercospora, can affect rubber trees by causing spots on the leaves, leading to defoliation and reduced latex production.

One industrial product: Rubber latex obtained from rubber trees is used in the production of various industrial products such as tires, gloves, footwear, and various other rubber goods.

(i) Reduced yield potential
(ii) Increased susceptibility to diseases and pests
(iii) Poor crop establishment
(iv) Limited genetic diversity
(v) Inefficient use of resources
(vi) Higher production costs

(i) Use healthy and disease-free parent plants
(ii) Ensure proper sanitation of tools to prevent the spread of diseases
(iii) Provide adequate nutrition to the plants
(iv) Maintain proper moisture levels in the rooting medium
(v) Protect the layered plants from excessive heat or cold
(vi) Monitor the layered plants regularly for any signs of stress or disease

(i) High nutritional value
(ii) Palatable to livestock
(iii) Drought-resistant
(iv) Disease-resistant
(v) Good ground cover to prevent soil erosion
(vi) Tolerant to grazing pressure
(vii) Ability to regrow quickly after grazing



Agro forestry is a land management system that combines trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock in a way that allows them to interact beneficially.

(i) Beautification of gardens, parks, and landscapes.
(ii) Indoor decoration in homes and offices.
(iii) Floral arrangements for events and ceremonies.
(iv) Screening or hedging to provide privacy.
(v) Medicinal and aromatic purposes.
(vi) Wildlife habitat and food sources.

(i) Reduction in crop yield and quality.
(ii) Increased production costs due to pest control measures.
(iii) Loss of market value for damaged produce.
(iv) Disruption of export trade due to quarantine restrictions.
(v) Spread of plant diseases through insect vectors.
(vi) Development of resistance in pest populations to control measures.

Causal organism: The causal agent of swollen shoot disease in cocoa is the Cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV), which belongs to the genus “Cocaduvirus.”

One symptom: One prominent symptom of swollen shoot disease is the characteristic swelling or enlargement of the terminal buds of cocoa branches and shoots, leading to a distortion of plant growth.

One mode of transmission: The virus is primarily transmitted through the planting of infected vegetative propagules such as cuttings or buds from infected trees.

One control measure: One control measure for swollen shoot disease is the strict sanitation of infected trees by uprooting and destroying them to prevent further spread of the virus. Additionally, planting of disease-resistant cocoa varieties can help manage the disease.

(i) Mulching
(ii) Crop rotation
(iii) Hand weeding
(iv) Planting competitive crops



(i) Reduced egg production: High temperatures can stress hens, leading to a decrease in egg production.
(ii) Poor egg quality: High temperatures can affect the quality of eggs produced, resulting in thinner eggshells or lower nutritional content.
(iii) Increased mortality rates: Heat stress can lead to higher mortality rates among laying hens.
(iv) Disruption of egg-laying cycles: High temperatures can disrupt the natural egg-laying cycle, causing inconsistencies in production.
(v) Reduced feed intake: Hens may consume less feed in high temperatures, leading to lower production levels.
(vi) Increased susceptibility to diseases: Heat stress weakens the immune system of hens, making them more susceptible to diseases that can further impact egg production.

(i) Collection and cleaning of bones: Bones are collected from slaughterhouses or processing plants and cleaned to remove excess tissue.
(ii) Grinding and crushing: The cleaned bones are crushed and ground to reduce them to a fine powder or granular form.
(iii) Boiling and drying: The crushed bones are boiled to remove excess fat and protein, then dried to eliminate moisture before packaging.

(i) Regular water testing and monitoring for quality parameters.
(ii) Proper feeding practices to prevent overfeeding and water pollution.
(iii) Regular removal of excess algae and debris to maintain water clarity.
(iv) Monitoring fish health and addressing any signs of disease promptly.
(v) Proper aeration to maintain oxygen levels in the water.
(vi) Regular maintenance of pond structures and equipment.
(vii) Proper stocking density to prevent overcrowding and stress among fish.

(i) Quarantine and biosecurity measures to prevent the spread of diseases within and between farms.
(ii) Vaccination programs tailored to the specific disease risks in the region.
(iii) Regular health monitoring and screening of livestock for early detection of diseases.
(iv) Proper nutrition and management practices to support the immune system of animals.
(v) Control of vectors and pests that can transmit diseases.
(vi) Prompt isolation and treatment of sick animals to prevent further spread of diseases.


(i) Swollen udder: The udder of the ewe may become noticeably swollen and full of milk as she approaches parturition.
(ii) Relaxation of pelvic ligaments: The ligaments around the ewe’s tailhead become loose, allowing for easier passage of the lamb during birth.
(iii) Nesting behavior: The ewe may start pawing at the ground or looking for a secluded spot to give birth.
(iv) Restlessness: The ewe may appear restless and may separate herself from the flock.
(v) Vulva changes: The vulva may become elongated, softened, and slightly swollen.
(vi) Milk leakage: The ewe may start leaking milk from her udder in the days leading up to parturition.

(i) Loss of feathers and damage to skin due to excessive scratching.
(ii) Reduced egg production and quality.
(iii) Anemia and weakness, especially in severe infestations.
(iv) Irritation and stress, leading to decreased feed intake and weight loss.
(v) Skin infections and lesions from constant scratching.
(vi) Transmission of other diseases and parasites due to weakened immune system.

Causal organism: Foot and mouth disease in pigs is caused by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which belongs to the Picornaviridae family. There are seven different serotypes of the virus, namely O, A, C, Asia1, and South African Territories (SAT) 1, 2, and 3.

One symptom: One common symptom of foot and mouth disease in pigs is the development of vesicles (small fluid-filled blisters) on the feet, mouth, and snout. These vesicles can cause discomfort and pain for the pigs, leading to lameness and difficulty in eating.

One mode of transmission: Foot and mouth disease in pigs is highly contagious and can spread through direct contact with infected animals, as well as through contaminated feed, water, equipment, and clothing. The virus can also be transmitted through the air over short distances. Controlling the movement of infected animals and practicing strict biosecurity measures are essential in preventing the spread of the disease.

(i) Manual collection
(ii) Electroejaculation

(i) Proper rotational grazing to prevent overgrazing and allow for vegetation recovery.
(ii) Planting native grasses and legumes to improve forage quality and diversity.
(iii) Controlling invasive plant species through targeted management practices.
(iv) Monitoring and managing water sources to ensure adequate hydration for livestock and wildlife.
(v) Implementing rest periods to allow vegetation to regrow and improve overall rangeland health.
(vi) Soil testing and management to maintain soil fertility and prevent degradation.




(i) Innovation: Entrepreneurs in agriculture drive innovation by introducing new technologies, methods, and products to improve productivity and efficiency.
(ii) Economic growth: Entrepreneurship in agriculture stimulates economic growth by creating jobs, increasing income for farmers, and boosting overall economic activity.
(iii) Diversification: Agricultural entrepreneurs help diversify the agricultural sector by exploring new markets, crops, and value-added products.
(iv) Sustainability: Entrepreneurial practices in agriculture focus on sustainable farming methods that preserve the environment and natural resources for future generations.
(v) Market access: Entrepreneurs play a crucial role in connecting farmers to markets, bridging the gap between producers and consumers.
(vi) Rural development: Entrepreneurship in agriculture contributes to rural development by providing opportunities for small-scale farmers to access resources, training, and support to improve their livelihoods.

(i) Assets: List of all owned properties and possessions with their current market value.
(ii) Liabilities: Total debts and obligations owed by the individual or organization.
(iii) Net worth: The difference between total assets and total liabilities, representing the financial position of the entity.
(iv) Valuation method: The method used to determine the value of assets and liabilities, such as market value or book value.
(v) Date of preparation: The specific date on which the net worth statement is prepared, reflecting a snapshot of the financial situation at that point in time.
(vi) Purpose: The intended use of the net worth statement, whether for personal financial planning, loan applications, or investment evaluations.

(i) Dissemination of improved agricultural practices and technology to farmers.
(ii) Increasing agricultural productivity and production efficiency.
(iii) Enhancing farmers’ knowledge and skills in modern agricultural techniques.
(iv) Encouraging sustainable agricultural practices and environmental conservation.
(v) Promoting market access and linkages for farm produce.
(vi) Empowering farmers through capacity building and training programs.
(vii) Facilitating community development and poverty reduction through agricultural interventions.

[In a Tabular form]

-Group method-
(i) Involves direct interaction with a small group of farmers.
(ii) Allows for personalized training and demonstration of new technologies.
(iii) Encourages group dynamics and peer learning among farmers.
(iv) Facilitates feedback and discussions among participants.
(v) Requires intensive human resources and time for implementation.
(vi) Suitable for complex or location-specific innovations.

-Mass method-
(i) Targets a large audience through mass media channels like radio, TV, and newspapers.
(ii) Provides broad reach and coverage to disseminate information quickly.
(iii) Limited interaction and feedback from farmers.
(iv) Cost-effective for reaching a large population.
(v) Less personalized compared to group methods.
(vi) Suitable for general information dissemination and awareness campaigns.




(i) Fluctuating market prices for agricultural products.
(ii) Unpredictable weather conditions affecting crop yields.
(iii) Pests and diseases that can damage crops or livestock.
(iv) Shortage of skilled labor for farm operations.
(v) High input costs such as fertilizers, pesticides, and machinery.
(vi) Access to credit and financing for farm operations.
(vii) Regulatory challenges such as compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

(i) Market research: Identifying and analyzing market trends, consumer preferences, and competitors.
(ii) Product development: Creating and adapting agricultural products to meet market demand.
(iii) Pricing: Setting competitive prices based on production costs and market conditions.
(iv) Promotion: Creating awareness and building brand reputation through marketing campaigns.
(v) Distribution: Ensuring efficient transportation and delivery of agricultural products to markets.
(vi) Customer relationship management: Building and maintaining relationships with buyers and stakeholders in the agricultural value chain.

(i) Production risk: Risks associated with weather, pests, diseases, and crop failures.
(ii) Price risk: Fluctuations in market prices for agricultural commodities.
(iii) Financial risk: Instability in input costs, interest rates, and access to credit.
(iv) Market risk: Changes in consumer demand, trade policies, and competition.
(v) Legal and regulatory risk: Compliance with laws and regulations governing agriculture.
(vi) Environmental risk: Risks related to climate change, pollution, and natural disasters.

(i) Farmers can observe and practice new techniques in a controlled environment.
(ii) Demonstrations provide visual aids that enhance understanding and retention of information.
(iii) Farmers can ask questions, receive immediate feedback, and engage in discussions during demonstrations.
(iv) Farmers can directly apply new knowledge and skills to their own farm operations.
(v) Demonstrations encourage peer-to-peer sharing of experiences and best practices among farmers.
(vi) Demonstrations increase the likelihood of farmers adopting new technologies or practices by seeing the benefits firsthand.


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