(i) Availability of water: The area with enough water attracts more people to settle in those areas compared to arid or dry areas. For example, places such as Rungwe in Mbeya which has plenty of water have high growth of settlement.
(ii) Availability of land for agricultural activities: The areas which have fertile land attract people to settle there while infertile land makes people move away from it. For example areas along the Kilimanjaro slope which is fertile due to volcanic soil have high growth of settlement.
(iii) Availability of social services: People prefer to live in areas that have social services such as education, water, and electricity and avoid settling in areas that lack social services. For example, many rural areas in the African continent low settlement growth rate due to lack of social services.
(iv) Government policy: government can affect the growth of settlement by forcing people to settle in a certain area or persuade people to settle in a certain area by supplying social services and other incentives. For example, there has been a rapid growth of settlement in the kinyerezi area on the outskirt of Dar es salaam city due to the government decision to allocate that land to settlement.
(i) Agricultural areas are converted into residential or industrial areas.
(ii) Agriculture and allied agricultural activities like fishing, livestock rearing, lumbering, etc.
(iii) Most of rural settlements are semi-clustered or fragmented and small in size.
(iv) People in rural areas daily commute to city areas for work.
(i) Traffic congestion: One of the most common issues that can hinder road transportation is traffic congestion, which occurs when there are more vehicles trying to use the road than it can accommodate.
(ii) Poor road infrastructure: Road infrastructure that is in poor condition, such as potholes or narrow lanes, can also hinder transportation by slowing down vehicles or making them more prone to accidents.
(iii) Limited accessibility: Some areas may have limited road access, either due to a lack of roads or due to geographic barriers such as mountains or rivers.
(iv) Natural disasters: Natural disasters, such as floods, hurricanes, or earthquakes, can also disrupt road transportation by damaging or destroying roads or making them unsafe to use.
(i) Alternative transportation options
(ii) Disaster preparedness
(iii) Traffic management
(iv) Road maintenance and improvement
(i) Traffic management: To reduce congestion, cities and transportation agencies can implement traffic management strategies such as carpool lanes, variable tolls, and public transport priority lanes.
(ii) Road maintenance and improvement: To address issues with poor road infrastructure, governments and transportation agencies can invest in regular road maintenance and improvement projects, such as resurfacing and widening roads.
Plantation agriculture involves cultivating a single crop like Tea, Coffee, Banana etc. commercially on a large area of land.
(i) Commercial plantation farming involves huge fields used to grow predominantly cash crops for export and plantations produced large yields of tea, sugarcane, espresso, elastic, cotton, and bananas.
(ii) Commercial and plantation farming require a vast labor and capital and transportation was needed to get these harvests to processing factories.
(iii) Latest plantation farming technology and techniques used. Crops exported and foreign exchange for other portions. Tea, espresso, sugarcane, and elastic are some developed harvests.
(i) Foreign ownership of farms
(ii) Infestation of pests and diseases
(iii) Fluctuation in prices of produce
(iv) Poor transportation network
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