Instruction:- Answer Any 5 Questions!
Computer:- this is a digital electronic machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations (computation) automatically.
(1b) ( PICK ANY FIVE )
(i) It must be relevant
(ii) It must also be clear
(iii) There must be sufficient accuracy
(iv) The information must be complete
(v)The information must also be trustworthy
(vi) It must be concise
(vii) Information must be provided in a timely manner
(1c) (PICK ANY TWO)
(i) Input Unit:- Computers respond to commands given to them in the form of numbers, alphabets, images etc. through input units or devices like keyboard, joystick etc.
(ii) Output Unit:- The result of the command we provide the computer with through the input device is called the output. The most used is the monitor since we give commands using the keyboard and after the processing, the result or outcome is displayed on the monitor.
(iii) Motherboard:- A motherboard is a circuit board through which all the different components of a computer communications and it keeps everything together.
(i) Data:- can be defined as a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner, which should be suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or electronic machine.
(ii) Information:- is organized or classified data, which has some meaningful values for the receiver. Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based.
(iii) Input device:- is a piece of equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information processing system, such as a computer or information appliance.
(iv) Output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment which converts information into a human-perceptible form or, historically, into a physical machine-readable form for use with other non-computerized equipment.
(v) Application software:- is a computer program designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used by end-users. Word processors, media players, and accounting software are examples of application software
(vi) Utility software:- is software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer. It is used to support the computer infrastructure – in contrast to application software, which is aimed at directly performing tasks that benefit ordinary users.
File Organization:- refers to the logical relationships among various records that constitute the file, particularly with respect to the means of identification and access to any specific record.
logical file organization is the level of the file system at which users can request file operations by system call.
Physical files organization:- this contain the actual data that is stored on the system, and a description of how data is to be presented to or received from a program. They contain only one record format, and one or more members.
(i) It has better control over record allocation.
(ii) It updates several files quickly.
(iii) It accesses the desired records immediately.
– DISADVANTAGES –
(i) Direct file organization does not provide back up facility.
(ii) It is expensive.
(iii) It has less storage space as compared to sequential file.
Digital comparator:- is a hardware electronic device that takes two numbers as input in binary form and determines whether one number is greater than, less than or equal to the other number.
DIAGRAM OF A NAND AND NOR GATE
(i) NAND gate is formed by the combination of NOT gate and AND gate. WHILE NOR gate is the combination of NOT and OR gate.
(ii) The output of NAND gate is the compliment of the product of the input. WHILE The output of NOR gate is the compliment of the sum of the input.
(iii) NAND gate is bubbled NOT gate. WHILE NOR gate is bubbled OR gate.
(iv) In NAND gate if any input is low the output is high. WHILE In NOR gate when both the inputs are low then output is high.
(v) In NAND gate If all inputs are high then input is low. WHILE In NOR gate if any input is high the output is low.
Computer program:- is a sequence of instructions written using a Computer Programming Language to perform a specified task by the computer.
(7b) ( PICK ANY FOUR )
(ii) User Friendly
(v) Self-Documenting Code
Step 1: Identify the problem
Step 2: Find a solution
Step 3: Code it
Step 4: Test it
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