Neco Gce 2022 Agricultural Science Obj & Essay Question And Answer Now Available




(i)Protection of the Environment
(ii)Employment of Labour
(iii)Preservation of Species
(iv)Provision of Raw Material

(i)Non-Profit in functioning: An NGO is not meant for making profit for personal gain.
(ii)Values: An NGO should address a social, cultural, economic or political cause and should work towards public good.
(iii)Voluntary: NGOs are voluntary associations.

(i)Land cannot be pledged, sold or used as collateral by an individual
(ii)Those with means, but who are not members of the community, find it difficult to get land for farming activities/non-indigenes of the community cannot acquire land or have access to it
(iii)There is tendency to neglect parcels of useful land as no one readily considers it his/her interest to protect it from degradation.
(iv)It is characterized by litigations and mis-understanding Mechanized farming cannot be practised without permission of the whole community.

(i)it is a variable energy source.
(ii)it cannot be generated on demand.
(iii)They farms are dependent on wind blowing

(i)Avoid splashing.
(ii)Avoid spilling.


Soil profile is the vertical section of the soil from the surface down to the bed rock or parent rock below

(i) igneous rocks are formed from cooled and solidified magma
(ii) igneous rocks Can be formed beneath the earth as intrusive rocks. Examples are gabbro, granite, etc.
(iii) igneous rocks contain crystals
(iv) igneous rocks are either acidic or basic
(v) igneous rocks vary in colour (light or dark)

(i) Parent material
(ii) Climate
(iii) Organisms
(iv) Topography
(v) Time

(i) Water
(ii) Wind

(i) hydrolysis
(ii) hydration

(i) Earthworm
(ii) hooves of animals

(i) agricultural residues
(ii) excess salts from applied irrigation water.


Transplanting is the transfer of seedlings from nursery beds to their permanent positions in the field.
Supplying also know as filling-in is the replacement of seeds that fail to germinate or seedling that dies.
Shading is the art of erection cover above seedlings. It also protects seedlings from harsh external environmental conditions e.g. Sun and rain drops.

Land preparation involve the application of fertilizers, soil amendments, and other materials to improve the soil’s structure and fertility. Once the land has been prepared, the sweet orange trees can be planted, and the production process can continue.
Sweet oranges prefer well-drained soils with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.0. The soil should also be fertile, with adequate levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to support the growth and development of the trees.
The production of sweet oranges typically involves the use of two types of planting materials: seeds and vegetative cuttings. Seeds can be used to produce new sweet orange trees, but they are not commonly used in commercial production due to the long germination time and the variability of the resulting trees. Instead, most sweet orange trees are propagated through the use of vegetative cuttings, which are pieces of the sweet orange tree that are cut and planted to produce new, genetically identical trees.
The production of sweet orange involves two main cultural practices: planting and care of the trees, and harvesting of the fruit. In terms of planting and care of the trees, sweet orange trees are typically grown from seedlings or grafted onto rootstock. Once the trees reach maturity, typically after 3-4 years, they will begin to bear fruit. The sweet orange fruit is typically harvested using a combination of hand-picking and mechanical shaking of the trees. The fruit is then sorted, graded, and packed for distribution.

(i) Wilting and yellowing leaves.
(ii) Stunted growth.
(iii) Swelling or knots on the roots.


Cost price = ₦200,000
Salvage value = ₦10,000
Useful life = 10years

Annual depreciation = Cost price – Salvage value/Useful life in years

Annual depreciation= 200,000 – 10,000/10

Annual depreciation = ₦19,000

(i) Inadequate information; He may lack information on where to buy farm inputs or acquire information on new innovations and current prices of farm inputs

(ii) Problems of Marketing: He may not know how and where to sell his produce, at what time to sell and at which price to sell to make maximum profit.

(iii) Inadequate Personnel: He may not get the right management team to work on the farm. They may be too expensive to work on the farm.

(iv) Administrative Problem: He may lack the technical know-how, good human relationship with staff, and the condition of his health may affect the performance of his duties.

(i) Group demonstration: This is used to show the technique of doing things or carrying out new practices e.g. clean milk production, paneer making, ghee making, etc. This method is usually used for groups of people.

(ii) Farm visit: This constitutes the direct or face-to-face contact by an extension professional with the farmer or the members of his family. During these visits, information is exchanged or discussed. The visits may be to get acquainted with the problems of the farmers.

(i) Principles of adaptability in the use of teaching methods
(ii) Principle of participation
(iii) Principle of leadership
(iv) Principle of trained specialists
(v) Principle of satisfaction

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