NECO GCE 2023 Agricultural Science Objective and Essay Questions And Answers



(i) Duration of tenure: Leasehold is a land tenure system where the land is leased or rented for a specific period of time, typically ranging from a few years to several decades. This feature allows for flexibility in land use as the tenant has the right to use the land for a fixed period of time but does not have permanent ownership.
(ii) Rent payment: In leasehold, the tenant is required to pay rent to the landowner for the use of the land. The rent may be in the form of cash, crops, or a combination of both. This feature provides income to the landowner and ensures that the tenant has a financial obligation to maintain and improve the land.

(i) Intergenerational transfer: Inheritance allows for the transfer of land ownership from one generation to the next. This ensures continuity in land use and allows families to maintain their connection to the land.
(ii) Customary laws and traditions: Inheritance is often governed by customary laws and traditions, which vary from culture to culture. These laws and traditions determine the rules and procedures for transferring land ownership upon the death of the landowner. This feature reflects the cultural, social, and historical context of a particular society.

(i) Industries provide a market for agricultural products, helping farmers to sell their produce and generate income.
(ii) Industries provide employment opportunities for rural populations, reducing unemployment and poverty.
(iii) Industries contribute to agricultural development through innovations, research, and technology transfer, leading to improved productivity and efficiency.
(iv) Industries provide inputs and services to farmers, such as agricultural machinery, fertilizers, and pest control products, helping to enhance agricultural practices.
(v) Industries contribute to value addition and processing of agricultural products, increasing their market value and profitability.

(i) Plough: A tillage implement used for turning over the soil and breaking up large clods to create a smooth and level seedbed.
(ii) Disc harrow: A tillage implement with rotating discs that cut through the soil, breaking up residues and preparing the soil for planting.
(iii) Cultivator: A tillage implement used for shallow soil cultivation, removing weeds, and loosening the soil surface.
(iv) Rotary tiller: This implement has rotating blades or tines that mix and pulverize the soil, preparing it for planting.

(i) Irrigation: Electrical power can be used to operate pumps and sprinkler systems for watering crops.
(ii) Grain drying: Electrical power can be used to operate grain dryers, which remove excess moisture from harvested crops.
(iii) Milking: Electrical power can be used to operate milking machines, reducing the manual effort required in livestock farming.
(iv) Poultry farming: Electrical power can be used to operate lighting and heating systems, ensuring optimal conditions for poultry production.
(v) Greenhouse farming: Electrical power can be used to operate climate control systems, providing the necessary temperature and humidity levels for plant growth.
(vi) Processing and packaging: Electrical power can be used to operate machinery for processing and packaging agricultural products, improving efficiency and quality control.


(i) Promote the use of organic farming methods, crop rotation, and integrated pest management techniques to minimize soil erosion, nutrient depletion, and chemical pollution.
(ii) Encourage the adoption of conservation agriculture techniques such as minimum tillage, cover cropping, and agroforestry to improve soil health, water retention, and biodiversity.
(iii) Planting of trees and restoration of forests can help in reducing the impact of agriculture on the environment by preventing soil erosion and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
(iv) Proper planning and zoning of agricultural activities can prevent encroachment on fragile ecosystems and promote sustainable land use practices.

(i) Promote the use of climate-smart agricultural practices such as improved irrigation techniques, drought-tolerant crop varieties, and water harvesting methods to adapt to changing climatic conditions.
(ii) Encouraging farmers to grow a wide variety of crops can help mitigate the risk of crop failure due to unpredictable climate patterns.
(iii) Improved weather forecasting and early warning systems can help farmers anticipate and prepare for extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, and storms.
(iv) Providing farmers with access to affordable agricultural insurance can help them recover from losses caused by unpredictable climate events.

(i) Lack of individual ownership rights: The act vests land ownership in state governors, limiting the rights of individuals and posing challenges in securing land for agriculture and other purposes.
(ii) Complex and cumbersome land acquisition process: The act requires multiple layers of approvals and documentation, leading to delays and corruption in the land acquisition process.
(iii) Inadequate compensation for landowners: The act does not adequately compensate landowners for their land, resulting in disputes and loss of livelihoods.
(iv) Inefficient land administration: The act centralized land administration, leading to bureaucratic bottlenecks and poor management of land resources.
(v) Limited access to land for small-scale farmers: The act favors large-scale commercial farming, making it difficult for small-scale farmers to access land for agriculture.

(i) Wear appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves, goggles, and masks, to protect yourself from chemical exposure.
(ii) Follow the manufacturer’s instructions and guidelines for mixing and applying pesticides or herbicides, including the recommended dosage and application rate.
(iii) Avoid spraying near water bodies, sensitive crops, or residential areas to minimize the risk of contamination and drift.

(i) Ensure proper training and certification in tractor operation to prevent accidents and damages.
(ii) Regularly inspect and maintain the tractor, including checking for leaks, worn-out tires, and malfunctioning parts, to ensure safe operation.
(iii) Operate the tractor at safe speeds and be cautious when turning or traveling on uneven terrain to prevent rollovers and accidents.


(i) Pruning
(ii) Weeding
(iii) Tapping
(iv) Fertilization

(i) Environmental Pollution
(ii) Resistance Development
(iii) Non-Target Species Impact
(iv) Residue Buildup

(i) Orchids
(ii) Bonsai Trees
(iii) Foliage Plants (e.g., Ferns)
(iv) Succulents

(i) Encouraging people to plant trees.
(ii) The prohibition of bush burning, the cutting down of timber trees, except with an official permit and the cutting down of trees in a forest reserve.
(iii) Illegal felling of trees should not be encouraged.
(iv) Harvesting of an under-aged tress, that is, the tree could only be harvested when it is about 20 or 25 years old.


(i) Reduced Growth Rates
(ii) Poor Reproductive Performance
(iii) Weight Loss and Emaciation
(iv) Increased Susceptibility to Diseases

(i) Calcium
(ii) Phosphorus

Stud Mating involves the controlled mating of a male animal (stud) with a female in a specific breeding environment. while Pen Mating involves allowing a group of females to freely associate with a male (kept in the same pen or enclosure).

Line Breeding involves breeding animals within the same genetic line or family to concentrate desirable traits. while Cross Breeding involves mating animals from different breeds or genetic lines.

(i) Poor Water Quality
(ii) Overcrowding
(iii) Unbalanced diet

(i) Beeswax
(ii) Propolis
(iii) Royal Jelly



(9a) Agricultural finance can be Define as the financial services, resources, and mechanisms involved in supporting agricultural activities. It includes the provision of credit, insurance, and other financial instruments to farmers, agribusinesses, and stakeholders in the agricultural value chain.

(ii) Retailers





(I) Subsidies are financial assistance provided by the government to reduce the cost of production or promote certain agricultural practices.

(ii) Subsidies do not require repayment. They are typically grants or financial incentives provided without the expectation of return.
(iii) Subsidies aim to reduce the financial burden on farmers, making certain inputs or practices more affordable.

(iv) Subsidies involve direct financial support from the government to specific sectors or individuals in agriculture.


(I) Credit involves the provision of financial resources as a loan, which is expected to be repaid by the borrower.

(ii) Credit involves a contractual agreement for repayment, often with interest, over a specified period. Borrowers are obligated to repay the loan.

Credit is intended for investment purposes, such as purchasing equipment, seeds, or other inputs, with the expectation of future returns.

(iv) Credit is often provided by financial institutions, and the government’s role may be indirect, such as through loan guarantees or interest rate subsidies. |

(i) Agricultural shows involve organizing events or exhibitions where farmers, extension agents, and the public can gather to showcase and learn about various agricultural practices, technologies, and products. These shows provide a platform for knowledge exchange, demonstrations, and promoting innovations in agriculture.

(ii) A field trip in agricultural extension involves taking farmers or participants to specific locations, such as successful farms, research stations, or agricultural processing facilities. It provides hands-on experience, exposure to best practices, and opportunities for direct observation and learning in real-world settings.

(I) Lack of Information: Farmers may lack access to accurate and timely information about new agricultural technologies, practices, or innovations. Insufficient knowledge can hinder their understanding and adoption of modern methods.

(ii) Limited Access to Resources: Constraints in accessing essential resources such as finance, quality seeds, fertilizers, and equipment can impede farmers’ ability to adopt new ideas that often require upfront investments.

(iii) Risk Aversion: Farmers, often operating in unpredictable environments, may be risk-averse. The fear of potential losses or uncertainties associated with adopting new ideas can discourage them from making changes.

(iv) Traditional Practices: Strong adherence to traditional farming practices passed down through generations can create resistance to adopting new ideas. Familiarity with established methods may lead to reluctance in embracing innovations.

(v) Inadequate Infrastructure: Lack of proper infrastructure, such as irrigation systems, transportation facilities, and storage facilities, can limit the successful implementation of new ideas, making it difficult for farmers to adopt them.

(vi) Social and Cultural Factors: Social and cultural factors play a significant role in farming communities. Norms, beliefs, and social structures may influence farmers’ decisions, and deviations from traditional practices may face social resistance.

(vii) Market Uncertainties: Uncertainties in market conditions, including price fluctuations and unpredictable demand, can deter farmers from adopting new ideas, especially if the economic benefits are unclear or not guaranteed.

(viii) Limited Extension Services: Inadequate extension services, including a lack of technical support, training, and advisory services, can hinder farmers’ ability to understand, implement, and adapt new ideas effectively.


(i) Farm assets refer to the resources owned and controlled by a farm, such as land, buildings, machinery, livestock, and crops. While, farm liabilities are the debts and obligations that a farm has, such as loans, mortgages, and unpaid bills.

(ii) Appreciation refers to the increase in the value of an asset over time due to factors such as inflation, market demand, or improvements made to the asset. While, depreciation refers to the decrease in the value of an asset over time due to factors such as wear and tear, obsolescence, or market conditions.

(i) Income and expense records
(ii) Inventory records
(iii) Production records
(iv) Sales records
(v) Budget records
(vi) Personnel records
(vii) Equipment maintenance records
(viii) Crop and livestock treatment records


(i) Wide reach: Mass media platforms such as television, radio, and the internet have the ability to reach a large audience across different geographical locations, making it possible to disseminate agricultural information to a wide range of farmers and stakeholders.

(ii) Cost-effective: Mass media can be a cost-effective method of agricultural extension as it allows for the dissemination of information to a large audience simultaneously, eliminating the need for individual on-site visits or physical distribution of printed materials.

(iii) Timeliness: Mass media can quickly deliver information to farmers, ensuring that they have access to the latest agricultural techniques, practices, and market trends in a timely manner.

(iv) Visual and audio impact: Television and online videos, in particular, can provide visual demonstrations of agricultural practices, techniques, and innovations, making it easier for farmers to understand complex concepts.

(v) Language and literacy barriers: Mass media can cater to diverse audiences by using different languages, visuals, and audio formats, making it accessible to farmers with varying literacy levels and language proficiency.

(vi) Interactive platforms: Interactive mass media platforms such as radio talk shows or online discussion forums can allow for two-way communication, enabling farmers to ask questions, seek clarification, and share their experiences with experts and fellow farmers.

(vii) Adoption of innovations: Mass media can effectively promote the adoption of new agricultural technologies and innovations by showcasing success stories, demonstrations, and testimonials from farmers who have successfully implemented these practices.

(viii) Continuous learning opportunities: Mass media platforms can provide ongoing agricultural information through regular broadcasts, podcasts, webinars, or online articles, allowing farmers to continually learn and stay updated on emerging trends and practices.


(i) Economic viability: The economic feasibility of adopting an innovation plays a significant role. Farmers are more likely to adopt innovations that offer cost savings, increased profitability, or improved productivity.

(ii) Access to capital: Availability of financial resources and credit options can influence the adoption of agricultural innovations. Farmers may require funds to purchase new equipment, technologies, or infrastructure.

(iii) Infrastructural support: Adequate infrastructure such as irrigation systems, storage facilities, and transportation networks are crucial for the successful adoption of agricultural innovations. Lack of basic infrastructure can hinder the adoption process.

(iv) Knowledge and awareness: Farmers need to have access to relevant information, training, and technical support to understand and effectively adopt new innovations. Awareness campaigns, training programs, and extension services can facilitate the dissemination of knowledge.

(v) Social networks and farmer networks: The presence of strong social networks and farmer networks can enhance the rate of adoption. Peer influence, sharing of experiences, and learning from others can motivate farmers to adopt innovations.

(vi) Government policies and regulations: Supportive policies, incentives, and regulations can positively influence the adoption of agricultural innovations. This includes subsidies, tax incentives, and favorable trade policies that encourage farmers to adopt new technologies.

(vii) Environmental sustainability: Innovations that promote sustainable farming practices, such as reducing water usage, minimizing chemical inputs, or conserving soil health, are more likely to be adopted by farmers concerned about environmental impact.

(viii) Risk perception: Farmers are cautious about the risks associated with adopting new innovations. Factors such as uncertainty, potential yield variations, and market volatility can affect the rate of adoption. Therefore, innovations with proven benefits and minimal risks are more likely to be adopted quickly.

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.