WAEC GCE 2023 Literature-In-English Prose and Objective Questions And Answers




Adah, the protagonist in Buchi Emecheta’s “Second Class Citizen,” faces numerous challenges in her marriage, but the extent of her responsibility for its failure is complex and influenced by various factors.

Adah’s aspirations for education and independence clash with her husband Francis’ traditional views on gender roles. Her pursuit of personal growth and ambition often conflicts with Francis’ expectations of a wife who adheres to traditional roles, prioritizing homemaking over career aspirations. Adah’s determination to pursue her dreams despite Francis’ disapproval creates tension and discord within their marriage.

However, solely attributing the failure of their marriage to Adah’s actions would be unjust. Francis is depicted as controlling, unsupportive, and at times abusive towards Adah, imposing his beliefs and restricting her opportunities for personal and professional growth. His inability to adapt to Adah’s evolving aspirations and his lack of encouragement contribute significantly to the marriage’s breakdown.

Adah’s resilience and determination to overcome societal barriers while striving for independence could be seen as a factor in the marriage’s failure, as she challenges traditional gender roles that Francis expects her to conform to. However, it’s essential to recognize the broader societal and cultural factors that influence their relationship dynamics, shaping both Adah’s choices and Francis’ reactions.

Ultimately, the failure of Adah’s marriage in “Second Class Citizen” is the result of a combination of conflicting values, societal expectations, and the inability of both partners to reconcile their differences and adapt to changing circumstances.


In the novel, Pa Ofili is depicted as a harsh and domineering husband who constantly belittles Adah and suppresses her aspirations. He expects Adah to be submissive and conform to societal expectations, relegating her to the role of a second-class citizen. Pa Ofili’s treatment of Adah reflects the deep-rooted gender inequality and patriarchal norms prevalent in their Nigerian community.

Pa Ofili’s actions consistently undermine Adah’s dreams and ambitions. He discourages her from pursuing an education and dismisses her attempts to challenge societal norms. Pa Ofili’s controlling nature and refusal to acknowledge Adah’s intelligence and potential contribute to her struggles as she strives for independence and a better life.

Furthermore, Pa Ofili’s desire for male heirs illustrates the gender bias and expectations prevalent in their society. He constantly pressures Adah to have a son, dismissing the value and importance of their daughters. This pressure puts an immense emotional burden on Adah, as she is blamed for not fulfilling her husband’s expectations.

Despite his oppressive behavior, Pa Ofili also represents the complexities of human nature. There are moments when he demonstrates glimpses of compassion and recognizes Adah’s strengths. However, these moments are too fleeting to overcome the overall oppressive and constricting environment he creates for Adah.

Pa Ofili’s character serves as a powerful symbol of the oppressive patriarchal system that women like Adah have to endure. Emecheta portrays him as a vivid representation of the societal expectations and limitations placed upon women, who are often relegated to the secondary roles in the family and society.

Overall, Pa Ofili’s role in “Second Class Citizens” highlights the challenges faced by women in a male-dominated society and serves as a catalyst for Adah’s journey of self-discovery, resilience, and eventual liberation. His character adds depth and complexity to the novel’s exploration of gender inequality and the struggles of women striving for autonomy and equality.


The narrator gains a complex set of experiences and insights through his invisibility. At first, the physical invisibility renders him unseen and overlooked by society, allowing him to move through the world as an observer. This grants him a unique perspective on the true nature of individuals and social structures.

Being invisible allows the narrator to witness the underlying prejudices, hypocrisies, and injustices that exist in society. He sees how people’s behavior changes when they think they are not being watched, revealing their true character. This, in turn, deepens his understanding of the complexities of human nature.

Moreover, the narrator gains the freedom to explore different identities and navigate various social spaces without being confined to a particular role or label. He can manipulate others’ perceptions of him, adapting to different situations and playing different roles as he sees fit. This ability to present himself differently to different people gives him a measure of control over how he is perceived and treated.

The narrator’s invisibility also grants him the power of knowledge. By observing those in power or positions of influence, he gains insight into the inner workings of society and the mechanisms that maintain systems of oppression. This knowledge empowers him to expose and challenge these oppressive systems in his later actions and interactions.

However, it is important to note that the narrator’s invisibility is both a blessing and a curse. While it offers him unique insights and a certain level of freedom, it also isolates him and makes it difficult for others to truly see and understand his experiences. The narrator grapples with a sense of disconnection and alienation, yearning for recognition and a sense of belonging.

In the end, the narrator gains a complex understanding and critique of society, the power to navigate between different identities, and the knowledge to challenge oppressive systems. While physical invisibility has its disadvantages, it ultimately allows him to see, question, and challenge the invisible forces that shape his world.


Joseph, the cantankerous and devout servant at Wuthering Heights, serves multiple roles in Emily Brontë’s “Wuthering Heights.” As a rigidly religious figure, Joseph emphasizes the themes of religion, morality, and the conflict between spiritual fervor and human flaws. He often acts as a moral compass, albeit a biased and judgmental one, providing a contrasting viewpoint to the characters’ actions.

Joseph’s staunch adherence to religious principles highlights the hypocrisy and moral decay of the characters around him. His rigid nature and fervent religiosity also serve to accentuate the darker aspects of Heathcliff’s vengeful and abusive behavior, contrasting it with Joseph’s superficial piety.

Moreover, Joseph’s presence adds to the atmospheric portrayal of Wuthering Heights as a place steeped in gloom, with his dour personality and harsh demeanor contributing to the overall sense of foreboding in the novel. He stands as a representation of the strict, unwavering adherence to societal norms and religious beliefs prevalent in the time period, providing a foil to the more passionate and unrestrained characters like Heathcliff and Catherine.

Overall, Joseph’s role extends beyond that of a mere servant; he serves as a vehicle through which Brontë explores themes of religion, morality, and contrasts the rigid societal expectations with the turbulent passions of the characters in the novel.

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