NECO GCE 2023 C.R.S & I.R.S Questions And Answers





Section A

Prophet Hosea’s marital experience is a significant aspect of his prophetic ministry. According to the Bible, Hosea was instructed by God to marry a woman named Gomer, who later became unfaithful to him, symbolizing the unfaithfulness of Israel towards God.

Hosea’s marriage to Gomer represented the relationship between God and Israel, with Hosea embodying God’s faithfulness despite Israel’s spiritual adultery. Despite Gomer’s infidelity, Hosea continued to love her and even redeemed her from a situation of slavery, reflecting God’s unconditional love and forgiveness for Israel.

Through this personal experience, Hosea conveyed God’s message of love, mercy, and the consequences of unfaithfulness. His marital life served as a powerful illustration of God’s enduring love for His people, despite their waywardness and unfaithfulness.

(i) Covenant and Commitment: Marriage symbolizes God’s covenant with humanity. Just as a marriage is a covenant between two individuals to love, cherish, and remain faithful to each other, God’s commitment to humanity is everlasting and unwavering, demonstrating His unending love and faithfulness.
(ii) Selfless Sacrifice: The sacrificial love between spouses mirrors God’s sacrificial love for humanity. In marriage, partners are called to love each other unconditionally, putting their partner’s needs above their own. This selfless love is akin to the sacrificial love shown by Jesus Christ for humanity.
(iii) Unity and Oneness: The union of two individuals into one entity in marriage reflects the unity found in the relationship between God and humanity. Just as marriage signifies the unity of two distinct individuals becoming one, God desires a close and unified relationship with humanity, emphasizing the concept of oneness and togetherness.


In the New Testament of the Bible, Jesus described Himself to the Samaritan woman at the well as the one who could provide living water. He said, “Everyone who drinks this water will be thirsty again, but whoever drinks the water I give them will never thirst. Indeed, the water I give them will become in them a spring of water welling up to eternal life.” (John 4:13-14, NIV) This conversation illustrated Jesus’ identity as the source of spiritual fulfillment and eternal life.


Jesus met a woman at Jacob’s well and asked her to give him water to drink. The woman was surprised that Jesus, a Jew would ask for water from a Samaritan. Jesus said if she knew the gift of God and who asked her for water, she would have asked him for a living water. The woman wondered how Jesus could give her water without even a vessel for drawing it out of the well. She questioned whether Jesus was greater than their father Jacob who dug the well. Jesus said every one who drank of that water would thirst again, but whoever would drink of the water he gave would never thirst, for the water he gave would become a spring of living water, leading to eternal life. The woman then asked for the living water so that she might no longer take the pains to come to the well to draw.

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(i) Spiritual Fulfillment: Christians can find lasting satisfaction and fulfillment in Jesus Christ. Just as Jesus offered living water to the Samaritan woman, believers can experience spiritual nourishment, peace, and satisfaction by having a personal relationship with Him.
(ii) Eternal Life: Jesus’ promise of living water symbolizes eternal life. Christians believe that through faith in Christ, they receive salvation and the assurance of eternal life. This teaching encourages believers to focus on spiritual matters and to seek a deeper connection with God.
(iii) Sharing the Gospel: Christians can apply this teaching by sharing the good news of Jesus Christ with others. Like the Samaritan woman who shared her encounter with Jesus, believers can spread the message of hope and salvation, inviting others to experience the spiritual fulfillment found in Christ.


The Council of Jerusalem, a pivotal event in early Christianity, took place around 50 AD and is described in the Book of Acts, specifically in Acts 15:1-29. The primary issue at hand was whether Gentile believers needed to adhere to Jewish customs, particularly circumcision, in order to be considered part of the Christian community.

The gathering brought together apostles, elders, and believers to address the growing tension between Jewish and Gentile followers of Jesus. The atmosphere was charged with debate and differing opinions. Some argued for the strict observance of Jewish laws and traditions, emphasizing the need for Gentiles to be circumcised. Others, including the apostle Paul and Barnabas, advocated for the inclusion of Gentiles without imposing Jewish customs upon them.

Amidst the debates, Peter, who had already witnessed the conversion of the Gentile Cornelius, spoke in favor of not burdening the Gentiles with the yoke of Jewish legalism. He emphasized that both Jews and Gentiles are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ.

James, the brother of Jesus and a prominent leader in the early Christian community, played a crucial role in proposing a resolution. He suggested a compromise that would not alienate the Gentile believers while still maintaining unity within the diverse Christian community. The resolution, accepted by the council, outlined that Gentiles should abstain from idolatry, sexual immorality, consuming blood, and strangled animals. This decision reflected a significant shift from strict adherence to Jewish laws to a more inclusive approach, welcoming Gentiles into the Christian fold without imposing unnecessary cultural requirements.

The Council of Jerusalem marked a crucial moment in the development of Christianity, establishing a precedent for a faith that transcended cultural and ethnic boundaries. The decisions made during this council laid the foundation for a more inclusive and diverse Christian community, setting the stage for the global spread of the Christian faith in the centuries to come.

(i) Inclusivity and Unity:The Council of Jerusalem teaches the importance of fostering inclusivity within a diverse community. The decision to not impose unnecessary Jewish customs on Gentile believers demonstrated a commitment to unity despite cultural differences. This lesson is relevant in contemporary contexts, emphasizing the need for inclusivity and acceptance within religious, cultural, and social communities.

(ii) Leadership and Decision-Making: The meeting showcased effective leadership and decision-making within the early Christian community. James, as a leader, proposed a resolution that sought a middle ground, considering the perspectives of both Jewish and Gentile believers. This highlights the significance of leadership that listens to diverse opinions, seeks compromise, and works towards decisions that benefit the entire community.

(iii) Grace and Freedom in Faith: The Council of Jerusalem underscored the central theme of grace in Christian theology. The decision to abstain only from specific practices, rather than imposing an array of Jewish laws, reflected an understanding of freedom in Christ. This lesson encourages believers to focus on the core principles of faith and grace, allowing for diversity in cultural expressions and practices without compromising the essence of the faith.




Hajj is an annual pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia, which is one of the Five Pillars of Islam. It is a religious obligation that every able-bodied and financially capable Muslim must perform at least once in their lifetime.

(i) Ihram
(ii) Tawaf
(iii) Sa’i
(iv) Wuquf
(v) Muzdalifah
(vi) Stoning of the Devil

(i) Wuquf: The main activity of the day is to stand on the plain of Arafat from noon until sunset, seeking forgiveness and supplicating to Allah. This is considered the highlight of the Hajj pilgrimage.
(ii) Sermon: The imams and scholars deliver sermons in various languages to guide and remind the pilgrims about the importance of the day and the significance of their actions.
(iii) Prayer: Pilgrims engage in voluntary prayers and supplication throughout the day, seeking forgiveness and blessings from Allah.
(iv) Reflection and Repentance: Pilgrims spend the day reflecting on their past actions, seeking forgiveness for their sins and making sincere repentance.
(v) Seeking Knowledge: Many scholars and knowledgeable individuals engage in teaching sessions and lectures during the day, providing spiritual guidance and answering questions from the pilgrims.
(vi) Dua: Pilgrims engage in continuous supplication, raising their hands and invoking Allah for forgiveness, mercy, and acceptance of their Hajj.

(i) Intent for Pilgrimage: In the 6th year of Hijri (Islamic calendar), the Prophet Muhammad and his followers intended to perform the pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca. They set out from Medina, dressed in pilgrim garb, with peaceful intentions.

(ii) Blocked Entry to Mecca: The Quraysh tribe, who controlled Mecca, was wary of Muhammad’s growing influence and the strength of his followers. They blocked the entrance to Mecca, preventing Muhammad and his followers from completing the pilgrimage.
(iii) Negotiations for Peace: To avoid bloodshed and seek a peaceful resolution, negotiations began between the Muslims and the Quraysh. Various attempts were made to reach an agreement that would allow the Muslims to perform their pilgrimage.
(iv) The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah: After prolonged discussions, a treaty was finally agreed upon at a place called Hudaybiyyah. The terms were largely favorable to the Quraysh and included a ten-year truce between the Muslims and the Quraysh, allowing for peace and ceasing hostilities.

(i) Ten-Year Truce: The treaty established a ten-year period of peace between the Muslims, led by Prophet Muhammad, and the Quraysh of Mecca. This truce aimed to halt hostilities and provide a time of tranquility between the two parties.
(ii) Ceasing Armed Conflict: Both sides agreed to refrain from engaging in armed conflict or warfare against each other during the specified period of the truce. This cessation of hostilities aimed to maintain peace and prevent further bloodshed between the Muslims and the Quraysh.
(iii) Permission for Pilgrimage: The treaty allowed the Muslims to return to Medina that year without performing the pilgrimage to Mecca. However, it included a provision for the Muslims to return the following year, allowing them to perform the pilgrimage peacefully, staying in Mecca for a limited three days without their weapons.



(i) Clarification and explanation of the Qur’an: The Hadith provides a detailed explanation and clarification of the teachings found in the Qur’an. It offers insights into the context, background, and practical applications of the Qur’anic teachings, helping Muslims understand and apply them in their daily lives.
(ii) Preservation of the Sunnah: The Hadith serves as a reliable source for preserving the sayings, actions, and approvals of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) or his companions. It ensures that the teachings and practices of the Prophet are accurately transmitted through generations.
(iii) Legislation and Jurisprudence: Hadith plays a crucial role in the development of Islamic law and jurisprudence. It provides legal guidance and rulings in various matters such as worship, transactions, family law, and inheritance. Scholars derive legal principles, rulings, and verdicts from Hadith, forming the basis of Islamic law.
(iv) Moral and Ethical Guidance: Hadith contains narratives that highlight the ethical teachings and moral values emphasized by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). They serve as a guide for Muslims to develop noble character and conduct themselves with integrity, kindness, humility, and justice.
(v) Historical and Cultural Preservation: Hadith is a valuable tool for preserving the history, culture, and social norms of the early Muslim community. It offers insights into the life, companions, and events during the time of the Prophet, providing a rich understanding of Islamic history and civilization.
(vi) Spiritual Development: The Hadith provides spiritual guidance and inspiration for Muslims. It offers teachings on developing a strong relationship with Allah, seeking forgiveness, developing patience, gratitude, and contentment, and striving for self-improvement and spiritual growth.

(i) Complementary: Hadith and the Qur’an are complementary to each other. The Qur’an is the primary source of Islamic guidance, while Hadith serves as an explanation and practical application of its teachings.
(ii) Validation: Hadith validates the teachings of the Qur’an by providing additional details, principles, and examples. It helps in understanding and implementing the general principles mentioned in the Qur’an.
(iii) Authenticity: Both the Qur’an and Hadith require a chain of authentic narrators to ensure their reliability. Scholars analyze the authenticity of the Hadith through the science of Hadith, which involves examining the chain of narration and the reliability of narrators.
(iv) Contextualization: The Hadith helps in contextualizing the verses of the Qur’an. It provides insights into the specific circumstances and occasions for the revelation of certain verses, helping to understand the intended meanings and applications.
(iv) Interpretation: Hadith plays a role in interpreting the Qur’an. Some verses of the Qur’an are general and require further elaboration and interpretation. Hadith provides explanations and interpretations of these verses, aiding in their understanding.
(vi) Practical Application: Hadith provides practical guidance on how to apply the teachings of the Qur’an in various aspects of life. It offers examples, traditions, and practices of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his companions, demonstrating how to implement the teachings of the Qur’an in different situations.

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