*NECO GCE GOVERNMENT
[PICK ANY SIX]
(i) Resources: Lack of human and material resources may put restraints on the exercise of state authority.
(ii) Pressure group activity: Pressure groups and certain individuals need to be consulted before the enactment and implementation of laws in the state without which they can influence the public for non- compliance.
(iii)The constitution: The constitution formally creates the state and defines the various powers to be exercised as well as their limitations.
(iv)The electorate: The electorates can check the excesses of the government through elections.
(v) International laws and membership of international organisations: States accept limitation on their sovereignty when they become members of international organisations like the U.N.O, O.A.U., ECOWAS as they have to comply with the laws and resolutions of these organisations.
(vi) Public opinion: International and local public opinions may prevent or control a country or state from taking an action, e.g. fear of sanctions and embargoes.
(vii)Customs and traditions: Customs and traditions of the people are taken into consideration when making law and this affects the sovereignty of the state.
(viii)Coup d’etat: This may erode popular sovereignty.
(ix)Types of governmental power: Sovereignty is better exercised under a unitary government than in federal and confederal systems.
An electoral commission is defined as a body responsible for organizing and conduction of elections in a political system.
[PICK ANY FIVE]
(i) Conduct of election: It is involved in the conduct, organisation and administration of elections in a country.
(ii) Registration of voters: The electoral commission is responsible for the registration of eligible voters for any election. 3. Division of a country into constituencies
(iv)Type of voting: The electoral commission decides the type of voting system to be adopted.
(v) Provision of electoral materials: It provides ballot boxes, ink, papers and other needed election materials.
(vi) Registration of political parties; It has the power to screen and register political parties for elections.
(vii) Display of voters’ register: It displays voters’ register after registration.
(viii) Revision of voters’ list: This is also one of the functions of the commission
(ix) Appointment and training of electoral officials: The commission is also mandated to recruit and train electoral officials for elections.
A state is a geographical territory occupied by a group of people of different cultural background with an organised government.
[PICK ANY FIVE]
(i) Permanence: The state is a permanent feature. Governments may change but the state remains.
(ii) Population: A state is occupied by people and these people make up the entire population, not animals. There is no limitation to the number of people making up a state.
(iii) Territory: A state has a defined territory with clear boundaries separating it from other states. e.g. Nigeria and Benin Republic. Waters and mountains and natural resources are part of the state.
(iv) Sovereignty: The state possesses the supreme power that enables it to make decisions and enforce such on the people.
(v)Government: Government is a machinery set up by the state to administer the state. Government takes the political, economic, cultural and other controls on behalf of the state.
(i) Political parties provided the leadership for constitutional development. Their members spearheaded agitation for constitutional reforms. For example, the 1946 Richard Constitution in Nigeria was criticized for lack of consultation.
(ii) The political parties initiated popular opposition against colonial government, for example, the Richards Constitution of 1951
(iii) They provided political education through rallies and newspapers owned by their leaders and these enlightened the masses on the deficiencies of colonial constitutions, e.g.. West African Pilot, Comet, Lagos Weekly Record, Nigeria Tribune, e.t.c.
(iv) Provision of leaders: The political parties provided leaders who attended constitutional conferences for the attainment of political independence, e.g. the ibadan,Conference of 1951 and the London Conferences of 1953 and 1957.
(v) Formation of government: They formed governments in their various regions under the 1951 constitution. This formed the basis for self-government in 1957 and 1959 and the eventual independence in 1960.
[PICK ANY SIX]
(i) Differences in ethnic Composition: There are differences in traditions, culture, language, religion, etc. These differences exist among the different ethnic groups, hence the adoption of federalism in Nigeria.
(ii) Fear of ethnic domination: The fear of one major ethnic group dominating others may give rise to the adoption of federalism.
(iii) Size of Country: Nigeria has a large population and with a wide geographical expression, federalism is a better option.
(iv) Minority interest: Adoption of federalism in Nigeria, is one way of protecting the interests of the minority. Nigeria has both the majority and minority tribes and other diversified interests and groups.
(v) Geographical Contiguity: The geographical nearness of the people in the country gave rise to the adoption of federalism.
(vi) Even development: Federalism promotes quick and even development and this is one of the reasons why Nigeria embraced it.
(vii) For security purposes: Different sovereign states may decide to come together by adopting federalism and this is done to have a secured sovereign state, for example, U.S. A., Switzerland, etc.
(viii) To generate Employment opportunities: Federal system makes for duplication of functions, thereby generating employment opportunities in the process.
(ix) Desire for a Union: There was the desire among the various groups to come together and form a union. This will remove all fears of external aggression.
(x) To bring government nearer to the people: Federalism may give rise to the creation of other units of government e.g states, local governments etc. This will help to bring the government nearer to the people.
[PICK ANY SIX]
(i) One of the major factors which brought about the 1962 crisis within the Action Group was mainly personality clash. This was between Chief Obafemi Awolowo, the party leader and Chief S. L Akintola, the deputy. Chief Awolowo accused Chief Akinlola of being over-ambitious and posing as the leader of the party, with the intention to possibly overthrow him as the leader of the party.
(ii) Another factor to the crises was the introduction of a new ideology into the party – democratic socialism. This innovation brought the party into two opposing camps. Democratic socialism demands mixed socialist economy, having the support of the radical group in the party. The conservatives were opposed to this ideology because it was in conflict with their interests which covered commercial and business sectors.
(iii) The issue on whether or not to join the NPC ruling party to form a national government contributed to the crises in A.G. Chief Akintola’s faction supported joining the NPC in forming a national government but Chief Awolowo’s faction opposed such, and preferred a working co-operation with the NCNC which they believed would help in unseating the conservative NPC from power.
(iv) Another issue in contention was the allegation against Chief Obafemi Awolowo, the then leader of opposition-in the House of Representatives. It was alleged that Chief Awolowo wanted the Premier of Western Region, Chief Akintola to consult with him before issues of importance were decided for the region. This was seen as an interference in the functions of the premier.
(v) In February 1962, A.G. had its annual congress in Jos, and decision was taken to abolish the post of a Deputy leader for the party, remove Chief Akintola as the premier of western Region and also dismiss Chief Ayo Rosiji, as the secretary of the party at the federal level. Chief S.L. Akintola, was found guilty of bad-administration, anti-party activities, disloyalty and gross indiscipline and therefore should be removed. The majority of party members in the Western Regional House of Assembly passed a vote of no confidence in the premier and presented same to the Governor, Sir Adesoji Aderemi. The Governor then had to remove Chief Akintola as the premier and he appointed Alhaji D. S. Adegbenro, the parliamentary leader in the House as the new premier. The Regional House met to ratify the decision of the executive, but turmoil broke out resulting in a free-for-all fight. It was alleged that supporters of Akintola started the fight; this was a strategy to prevent the normal conduct of the House affairs. The Police was called in and with teargas dispersed the members of the House.
(vi) With the confusion and disorder that ensued, the police had to lock up the legislative chamber on the orders of the Prime Minister. This was done as a result of the fight that came up when a second meeting was to hold. A state of emergency was declared in Western Region by the Federal government and Dr. M.A. Majekodunmi, a federal minister, was made the administrator. At the end of the emergency period, which lasted for 6 months, Chief Akintola was reinstated as the premier. In November 2 1962, ChiefAwolowo and about 30 others were charged with planning to overthrow the federal government. ChiefAwolowo was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment.
(vii) The reinstatement of Chief Akintola as the Premier led to his formation of a new party called United Progressive Party (UPP) and with an alliance with some members of NCNC, formed a coalition government in the region. UPP and NCNC later became Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP). Justice G.B.A. Coker was appointed to head a commission of inquiry to investigate allegations of maladministration and misappropriation of public funds in some public corporations in the Region and at the end of the investigation, Chief Akintola, was not found guilty of such. The excising of Mid-west Region from the Western Region was another factor that led to the crises in Action Group. It should be of note that the A.G. never supported this action.