Waec 2022 Geography Obj & Essay Questions And Answer Now Available











(i) Road Transportation

(ii) Rail Transportation

(iii) Water Transportation

(iv) Air Transportation



(i) To supply raw materials to other parts of the country e.g East African railway.

(ii) To link important cities and facilitate movement of people e.g. Abidjan Ouagadougou.

(iii) To link different regions, thus, promoting inter-regional trade e.g. North and South of Nigeria.

(iv) To open up new areas for major crop production e.g Jos- Maiduguri

(v)To tap resources such as agricultural,mineral and forest. For example , rail network such as Minna,Laura Namoda rail network

(vi) For the purpose of administration.

(vii) For postal services.



(i)Deliberate effort should be made towards the expansion of the Raul network ,inorder to generate growth in the economy. Effort should be geared towards improvement of the efficiency of the rail network

(ii) Government should make capital available to railway authorities to enhance efficiency. Training and retraining of personnel should be undertaken from time to time

(iii) Development of international rail transport system should be embarked upon to spur international trade. There should be improved management techniques: new innovations in management should be encouraged.

(iv)Adoption of standard gauges is very important , so as to enhance operational efficiency.Also There should be Faster engines and coaches to facilitate east and quick movement.

(v)There should be embarkment to check steep gradients, uniform gauges should be adopted, double tracks should be constructed and There should also be improved communication system.



Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the corresponding decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which societies adapt to this change. WHILE Population density is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term.


(i) High population density: This problem of high population density is caused due to the heavy rate of migration from rural areas. The rapid population growth has led to an acute shortage of dwelling units which resulted to; overcrowding, traffic congestion, pollution, housing shortages, high rents, poor urban living conditions, low infrastructure services, poverty, unemployment, and poor sanitation which has become pervasive and indeed high crime rate.

(ii) Inadequate infrastructures: One major serious aspect of the urban problem is the poor state of the infrastructures. Some developing countries are still faced with bad road network, lack of power supply, inadequate water supply and some basic amenities.

(iii) Lack of affordable housing: This has led to confrontations with well organized squatters, who take over unoccupied buildings to live rent- free or prevent demolitions. Which has brought about, lack of housing vacancy rate, due to the rapid job growth and housing costs that has increased.

(iv) Flooding: Flooding is a very serious problem faced in urban areas, especially in developing countries, during the rainy seasons. The drainage is poorly constructed leading to difficulty in accessing the roads due to the flood leading to the flood disaster in some developing countries.


(i) Building Sustainable and Environmentally-friendly Cities: Governments should pass laws that plan and provide environmentally sound cities and smart growth techniques, considering that people should not reside in unsafe and polluted areas.

(ii) Provision of Essential Services: Urban stakeholders must ensure all populations within the urban areas have access to adequate essential social services namely education, health, sanitation and clean water, technology, electricity, and food.

(iii) Creation of More Jobs: To lessen the negative effects of rapid urbanization while at the same time conserving natural ecosystems, private investments should be encouraged so as to utilize natural resources and create more job opportunities.

(iv) Population Control: Key stakeholders in urban areas must provide campaigns and counseling for effective medical health clinics and family planning to help reduce the high rates of population growth.




(i) A small labour force made up of mainly the family members is employed

(ii) Small quantities of articles are produced

(iii)Less capital intensive

(iv)Irregular hours of work

(v) Prices of products are negotiable as it uses simple tools

(vi)Irregular income and uses local raw materials mainly.



(i) The Local Craft industries are often affected by lack of raw materials which hinders the production.

(ii) Poor patronage from the indigenes as a result of poor finishing and low purchasing power.

(iii) Lack of modern equipment to reduce the physical human labour in order to increase production.

(iv) Problem of transportation to bring the finished products from where that are produced in the interior to the markets in the urban centers.



(i)High level of technology: The increase for high volume of trade between developing and advanced countries is due to the high level of technology in the latter.

(ii)High level of savings: The high level of savings in developed countries makes production cheaper; hence they can easily export their products to developing countries.

(iii)Colonial ties: The inclination of some developing countries to their colonial masters has helped to increase the volume of trade between the nations.

(iv)Differences in import duties: There are higher differences in import duties imposed on imported goods in both countries.

(v)Differences in prices of goods: There are higher differences in prices of goods produced by both countries in order to earn foreign exchange. Foreign goods are cheaper than local ones.

(vi)Preference for imported goods: Developing countries like Nigeria has preference for goods produced by advanced countries; hence, the high volume of trades




(i) Root and tuber crops

(ii)Cereal crops


(iv) Cash crop



(i)It is very common in rural areas with abundant farmlands.

(ii) It involves small holdings of farmlands.

(iii) Food crops like yam, cassava and maize are grown.

(iv)Farmlands are left to fallow after one or two years of cultivation.

(v) A farmer returns to the farmland after a fallow period of 2-5 years.

(vi) It uses slash or burn method for land preparations.

(vii) It does not involve the cultivation of cash crops like cocoa, rubber and oil palm.

(viii)Bush fallowing is practised where population is very low.

(ix) Produce is usually very low and there is little or none for sale.



(i) It leads to wastage of land which could have been used by allowing it to lie fallow

(ii) It leads to land fragmentation due to increase in population

(iii)It allows for cultivation of only one seasonal crops like maize,rice and millet

(iv) It does not lead to mechanisation of farms i.e it does not allow for large scale mechanised farming

(v)It results in poor yield resulting from shorter fallow period as population

(vi)It leads to soil erosion when soil is exhausted and it destroys valuable forest resources like timber.




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