Waec 2023 Literature In English Drama & Poetry Question And Answer Now Available

Literature In English Complete Answer!

Section A:-

The play opens in the morning, near the village center on the edge of the market. The ‘bush’ school, that is, the village school Lakunle, the school teacher is nearly twenty-three years old, dressed in an “old style and worn-out English suit, rough but not ragged, but clearly “a size or two too small”. Sidi carried a pail of water on her head and Lakunle complains bitterly about such an act because she is at risk of shortening her neck and also because she has exposed her shoulders for everyone in the village to feast his lustful eyes on. Sidi defends such an action when she says at she decides to fold the wrapper high so that she can breathe, and Lakunle insists that she could have worn something on top as most model do. Sidi becomes furious and reprimands Lakunle to desist from being a village gossip and also calls him “the mad man/of llunjunle. because of his meaningless words, but Lakunle is undaunted because he feels that women’s brain is naturally small, women are the weaker sex, only weaker breeds pound yams, bend to plant millet. He foresees that one, two years to come when machines will do those things and he also hints at his intention to turn llunjunle around for good. Sidi becomes fed up with the meaningless dialogue and demands her pail back angrily but debunks the payment of bride price.

Part of Lakunle’s meeting with Sidi is to make known his intention to marry her and she insists that her bride price must be paid according to their custom and tradition and that marrying him without a price would make people think that she is no virgin and that would bring shame to her family.
But Lakunle resists the idea and describes it as a savage custom that is barbaric and uncivilized. He goes further to educate Sidi on the implication of payment of the bride price and his plan. Lakunle calls Sidi a bush and uncivilized girl who does not want to appreciate and accept civilized romance and ideology.
The introductory part of this play between Sidi and Lakunle shows the cultural gap versus modernity.


The play explores the spate of cabal or conspiracy which is a secret agreement between two or more people to perform an unlawful act. The conspirators in this play includes Lamboi and Musa. One of their selfish aims or objectives is not only to take charge of the chiefdom but also to kill and maim at will.

Firstly, Lamboi together with Musa, the seer and medicine man nurses a plan to poison and have chief Gbanya murdered for passing the Chiefdom to Yoko, a mere woman. Lamboi then compels Musa to poison chief with Alligator gall when Yoko is not available in the courtyard. Part of Lamboi bitterness is the fact that he advised Gbanya not to undertake the Caulker campaign, but Yoko told him she needed more slaves to work on the farm he’d given her, so they had to go to war which was not their own. Consequently, many of their finest fighters, young men died just to satisfy the want of a woman. The fear of Yoko turning the chiefdom and leading Senehun astray makes them come with their plan to eliminate Gbanya.

In addition, as soon as Lamboi’s plan to take over from Gbanya yield no fruit.

This time around, they intend to kidnap and kill Ndapi’s daughter, Jeneba, bury her in a shallow grave. They will therefore trick and manipulate the people to believe Yoko used her as a sacrifice for more power and authority.


Section B:-

The love between Jimmy and Helena is portrayed as complicated and filled with tension. Their relationship is marked by conflicts, power struggles, and unhealthy dynamics. Jimmy’s love for Helena may be genuine, but it is also intertwined with anger, resentment, and societal frustrations. The play delves into the complexities of love and relationships, portraying the nuances and contradictions that can exist within them.

While Jimmy’s behavior towards Helena is often harsh, resentful, and even abusive, there are moments in the play that suggest a deep, albeit troubled, love for her. Here are a few factors that shed light on Jimmy’s feelings for Helena

Despite his anger and mistreatment of Helena, Jimmy appears emotionally dependent on her. He seeks her company, wants her attention, and becomes jealous when she interacts with other men. This suggests that he has a deep emotional connection to her.
Moments of Tenderness: Amidst their conflicts, there are instances where Jimmy displays moments of tenderness towards Helena. He shows concern for her well-being, demonstrates vulnerability, and occasionally shares intimate moments of affection. These moments indicate that he does have genuine feelings of love for her.

Jimmy’s anger and bitterness often mask his vulnerability and insecurities. It is suggested that Helena is one of the few people with whom he allows himself to be vulnerable. His need for her presence and emotional support indicates a level of emotional attachment and love.

Jimmy’s self-destructive behavior and his tendency to push away those closest to him, including Helena, can be seen as a reflection of his fear of intimacy and emotional connection. His actions may be driven by a combination of love and a subconscious desire to protect himself from being hurt.


Bono is portrayed as a loyal and committed friend to the protagonist, Troy Maxson. Bono’s dedication to their friendship can be attributed to several reasons such in a way that firstly Bono and Troy have a long history together, spanning many years. They have been friends since their time in prison, and this shared experience has created a bond between them. Bono values their history and the trust they have built over time, which strengthens his commitment to their friendship.
Secondly, on their mutual support as Bono is a constant source of support for Troy, and vice versa. They lean on each other during difficult times, sharing their triumphs and hardships. Bono often acts as a sounding board for Troy’s struggles and offers advice and guidance when needed. This mutual support creates a sense of camaraderie and deepens their friendship.
Thirdly, Bono has a deep understanding of Troy’s flaws, shortcomings, and complexities. Despite Troy’s sometimes difficult and abrasive nature, Bono accepts him for who he is. He recognizes Troy’s humanity and respects his experiences, allowing for a genuine connection based on acceptance and understanding.
Further more Bono is fiercely loyal to Troy. He stands by him through thick and thin, even when Troy’s actions or decisions may be questionable. Bono remains steadfast and committed, demonstrating his unwavering loyalty to their friendship.
Additionally, Bono and Troy share certain values and beliefs. They both have a strong work ethic and a sense of responsibility. They understand the importance of providing for their families and the struggles faced by black men in a racial and more also these shared values further solidify their bond and commitment to each other.
It’s clear that Bono sees beyond Troy’s flaws and remains dedicated to their friendship, embodying the qualities of a steadfast and loyal friend.


Section C:-

Number 9

The poet presents the reader with contrasting emotions throughout the poem. It contains different moods.
The initial two stanzas depict the circumstances leading to the appointment of the “Government Driver” who had diligently served for thirty years and was now retiring.
“…today retires he home…” lines 3
In the following stanza, the poet introduces the reader to the jubilation and delight felt by the driver due to his retirement and the recognition he receives for his dedicated service.
“…more joy to send him home”
“a brand new car in his name…” lines 17-18

The poet initially portrays the government driver’s anticipation and excitement about his retirement. However, there is a sudden shift in mood as the driver’s exhilaration intensifies upon receiving the car gift. This change in mood fuels his rejoicing even further.
…“Come friends and rejoice more, Joy till no more joy to joy…”

In the final stanza, the initial mood of excitement and fulfillment diminishes as the same excitement ultimately leads to the driver’s demise. This turn of events evokes a mood of “pity and shock” as the poem concludes.
The initial excitement that pervaded stanzas 1 to 5 dissipates as the driver indulges in alcohol, impairing his vision and sound judgment.
…”Booze boozed his vision and clear judgement, he boomed his brand new car and it sent him home to rest in peace…”
The poem begins with an exciting narrative, but as the story unfolds, it gradually transitions into a somber and gloomy atmosphere. These two prevailing moods permeate the entire plot of the poem.


Section D:-

The poem “Caged Bird” by Maya Angelou depicts powerful use of imagery, which serves to highlight the stark contrast between freedom and oppression, and to convey the emotional experiences of the caged bird.

Throughout the poem, the poet employs vivid and evocative imagery to draw a parallel between the bird’s physical and emotional confinement. For example, she describes the bird’s wings as “clipped and its feet tied,” symbolizing the restrictions imposed upon it. This visual imagery creates a sense of imprisonment and helplessness, emphasizing the bird’s inability to fly and experience the freedom it desires.

The poet also utilizes contrasting imagery to emphasize the stark divide between the caged bird and its free counterpart. She describes the free bird’s flight as “the orange sun rays beating on its wings,” painting a picture of unbridled movement and the warm embrace of sunlight. In contrast, the caged bird’s experience is characterized by “bars of rage” and a “grave of dreams.” These vivid descriptions evoke a sense of confinement and frustration, emphasizing the emotional toll of captivity.

In addition, the poem’s imagery draws upon natural elements to further enhance its impact. Angelou employs images of a “sighing wind” and a “fat worms waiting on a dawn-bright lawn” to create a vivid sense of the outside world that the caged bird longs for. These natural images serve as symbols of freedom and possibilities, highlighting the stark contrast between the bird’s confined existence and the vastness of the world beyond.

The use of sensory imagery also plays a significant role in the poem. Angelou appeals to the reader’s senses, allowing them to imagine the bird’s experience more vividly. The reader can almost hear the caged bird’s “trill of things unknown” and feel its frustration through the images of the “shadow shouts” and “fearful trill.” These sensory details contribute to the emotional impact of the poem, enabling readers to empathize with the bird’s longing for freedom.

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